Assessment is a process of collecting
measurements, interpret, describe, and
interpret the evidence of
Assessment is a process for making
decision using information obtained
through measurement. (Siregar Dan
5. General Principle of Assessment
1) The materials were developed from curriculum assessment
2) Cross-charge or subjects.
3) Relates to the ability of learners.
4) Performance based learners.
5) Motivating learners.
6) Emphasizing on activities and learning experiences of learners.
7) Give learners the freedom to construct the response.
8) Emphasizing the Integration of attitudes, knowledge, and
9) Develop divergent thinking skills.
10) Being an integral part of learning.
11) Requires reversal immediately and
12) Emphasizing that reflect real-world context.
13) Associated with the world of work.
14) Using data obtained directly from the real
15) Using various methods and instruments.
7. Types of Assessment
1. Formative Assessment (Assessment for learning)
2. Summative Assessment (Assessment of Learning)
13. Characteristics of Formative Assessment
1)Provides the students with on his progress or gain.
2)Must be continuous starts with comment of program until
the time be complete it.
3)Informs students about extent of learning needs to reach the
4)Enables learning activities to be adjusted in accordance
with progress made or lack of it.
5)Useful in guiding the students and prompting him to ask for
6)It is carried out frequently whenever the student/teacher
feels it as necessary.
7)Provides teacher with qualitative and quantitative data for
modification of his teaching.
14. Uses of Formative Assessment
Formative assessment provides feedback to students
throughout their time working on certain material.
They can help teachers to notice if instructions or
techniques need to be modified throughout a lesson.
This type of assessment gives students constructive
guidance to help them improve their work, and/or
methods for learning.
It encourages students to self-assess their own work,
which is a helpful skill that can be used throughout their
time as a student, and when they enter their career field.
Formative assessments are not graded, which takes the anxiety away
It also detaches the thinking that they must get everything right.
Instead, they serve as a practice for students to get assistance along the
way before the final tests.
Teachers usually check for understanding in the event that students are
struggling during the lesson.
Teachers address these issues early on instead of waiting until the end
of the unit to assess.
Teachers have to do less re-teaching at the end because many of the
problems with mastery are addressed before final tests.
Some teachers complain about sacrificing time to assess during the
lesson and fear that they may not even finish the lesson.
Teachers then feel the need to rush through a series of units, which
causes students to lack mastery once the assessment is given at the end
of the unit.
Teachers may lack training or professional development on how to use
formative assessments successfully because, historically, assessments
are completed at the end.
Formative assessment may lack the same weight — low to no point
value — as a summative assessment, and students may not take the
assessments seriously, which may cause teachers to misread feedback
20. Aims of Summative Assessment
To assess the learners achievement at the end
of a teaching-learning process, for instance,
at the end of the unit.
Measures the learners attainment of specific
objectives at the end of a given period of
Put lights on the ultimate effectiveness of the
overall process or training that is carried out.
To benefit comparison.
To measure the effectiveness of curriculum,
teaching methods and programs.
21. Purpose of Summative Assessment
To measure student achievement
at a point in time for reporting
To sort students in rank order.
To maximize student learning
through standardized tests, etc.
22. Characteristics of Summative Assessment
1) Certifying evaluation is designed to develop
competent personnel from practicing.
2) To place students in order of merit.
3) Justifies the discussion as to whether they should
move up to next class or be awarded a degree or
4) Carried out less frequently at the end of a can it or
period of instruction.
23. Uses of Summative Assessment
They are useful for teachers in how they
determine where their students are at, in
terms of whether or not standards are
Summative assessments also help with
curriculum and school improvement.
This type of assessment is most useful
in determining the effectiveness of
teaching techniques and strategies after
a specific lesson, such as unit, or
Allow for the evaluator to see the entire picture of the event being
evaluated to ensure that the program’s over all goals and objectives
Individuals groups maybe compared to help instructors gain a better
understanding of which teaching method work best for various groups.
Provides essential data for this process.
Provides a means to find out whether your project has reached its
Allows you to quantify the changes in resource use attributable to your
project so that you can track how you are the impact of your project.
Allow you to compare the impact of the different projects and make
result-based decisions on future spending allocations (taking into
account an intended a consequences).
Allow you to develop a better understanding of the process of
change, and finding out what works, what doesn’t and why. This
allows you to gather the knowledge to learn and improve future
project designs and implementation.
End of a specific learning period.
Questionnaires are the least expensive procedures for the external
evaluations and can be used to collect large samples of graduate
Questions are asked in ways that
students do not understand or have a
difficulties answering. Neither of
these get at whether this student really
know the material that was taught.
The model and methodology used to
gather the data should be a specified
step by step procedure. It should be
carefully designed and executive to
ensure the data is accurate and valid.
33. Internal Assessment
Credit obtained by the student for a term work a
subject in his or her school. It is a continuous
periodic and internal.
The education commission recommends:
“Internal Assessment should be built into the total
education program and should be used for the
improvement rather than for certifying level of
34. Need for Internal Assessment
To give credit in final Assessment.
To reduce tension associated with final
To provide link for feedback in teaching.
To evaluate sphere of activity this can not be
along through public exam.
To provide opportunity to the teacher to
evaluate his/her students.
To induce students for continue learning.
35. Basic Principles of Internal Assessment
a) Should be continuous and made by subject teacher. It
does not replace exams.
b) It uses suitable evaluation tools and techniques.
c) Fix proportion of marks according to hours of
instructions and importance of subject to nursing.
d) Used as a feedback to improve teaching.
e) Students should know their internal assessment marks
before their final exams.
f) Give opportunity to students to improve their internal
assessment grade by additional tests, assignments etc.
g) Results must be studied statistically.
h) Improve a no. of components and weight, ages.
36. Procedure for Internal Assessment
1)Internal Assessment should be comprehensive,
evaluating all the aspects of student’s growth. E.g:
academic achievement, personality traits etc.
2)Internal Assessment should be kept separately.
3)Through Internal Assessment teachers can change
attitude of students favorable towards day to day
4)Internal Assessment should be objective, unbiased
and based on all the records of unit test, practical
tests, home work, class work, observational scales
and inventories, participation in group project etc.
37. Components of Internal Assessment
System Weight age of items of
A ) Subject wise assessment
UNIT 25 marks
2 term 25
Performance tests 20
Home work & class work 10
38. B). Assessment of co curricular activities
Library work 20
Debates, drawing 20
39. C). Assessment of Personality Traits
Traits Very much Not at all
40. Validity of Internal Assessment
Through Internal assessment is a powerful tool in
the hands of a teacher there is like hood of its
misuse. It becomes invalid if the teacher is biased,
has prejudice against a particular pupil.
The tool of internal assessment is very powerful if
assessment is mode objectively and is free from
1. No undue weight age is given to annual or external
2. Proper study will be engaged is study throughout the
3. Students will be engaged in study throughout the
4. They will be more regular, alert, science in students.
5. Eleventh hour preparation in exams will be reduced
6. Internal assessment helps to reduce anxiety and
prevent nervous breakdown in students.
1. A teacher may misuse it.
2. It can cause a great harm in the hands of an inexperienced insincere
3. It will lose its validity if favourism, personal prejudice and subjectively.
For some people, exams make them stress. This is because there is too
much pressure of their parents and teacher. What will happen if a person
is sick or a dear one of his/her die? The answer is that the person will be
During the exam, a person may also have problem with questions:- Bad
choice of questions. Irrelevant answers. For most failure, who has got
bad result, it will affect their future. For some, it can change their
character or lead to suicide. But most lose confidence in themselves.
43. External Examination:
An examination prepared by someone
outside the faculty of the school where the
examination is given.
External Assessment is organized and
conducted through standardized test,
observation, and other techniques by an external
agency, other than the school/colleges.
44. Examination Scheme:
Minimum pass marks shall be 50% in each of the theory and practical
A candidate must have minimum of 80% attendance in theory and
practical in each subject for appearing for examination.
A candidate must have 100% attendance in each of the practical areas
before award of degree.
A candidate has to pass in theory and practical exam separately in each
of the paper.
If a candidate fails in either theory or practical paper he/she has to re-
appear for both the papers.
All practical examinations must be held in the respective clinical areas.
One internal and one external examiners should jointly conduct
practical examination for each students.
With exams, a person will be able to know his
performance and knowledge. For most people, exams
may encourage them to work and learn.
Sometimes with exams, it can create competition, which
push the competitioners to do their best. Hence, it helps
in developing one’s own personality and confidence. If a
person pass the exams and got a good result, it helps to
get a scholarship which will bring to have a good job.(a
For some people, exams make them stress. This is
because there too much pressure of their parents
and teachers. What will happen if a person is sick
or a dear one of his/her die? The answer is that the
person will be penalized.
During the exam, a person may also have
problems with questions:- Bad choice of
questions. Irrelevant answers. For most failure,
who has got bad result, it will affect their future.
For some, it can change their character or lead to
suicide. But most lose confidence in themselves.
1. Elakkuvana Bhaskara Raj.D, “Text Book of Nursing
Education” EMMESS Medical Publishers, Second Edition,2015,
Page No: 241-247
2. R Sudha, “Principles and Concepts of Nursing Education”
Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(p)LTD, First Edition,2013,
Page No: 155-160
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formative assessment
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summative assessment