OB Involves the study of process-how
people in social systems function with
each other to get work done.
OT deals more with the structural
elements of organizations.
How to put the pieces together to facilitate
Process involves managers
Managers, a structural component of
organizations, interacts (process
component) with others to accomplish
Make decisions, allocate resources, direct
Accomplish organizational and personal
How do we frequently view
Organizations and People in
Classical Paradigm-a structural approach
Organizations are machines
Machines consist of components e.g.
equipment, people, buildings, cash, raw
Managers job is to fit the components of the
machine together in the most efficient way
Human Relations/Systems Paradigm
Organizations are social systems
Systems consist of elements, a boundary
and the relationship among the elements
Social systems consist of the
relationships (process) among
individuals within a given structure
OB is a field of study that
investigates the impact that
individuals, groups, and structure
have on behavior within
organizations for the purpose of
applying such knowledge toward
improving an organization’s
effectiveness and efficiency.
OB is concerned with the study of what
people do in an organization (social
system) and how that behavior affects the
performance of the organization (its
effectiveness and efficiency).
Individual and group behavior
What do managers do?
Plan, organize, lead and control
Fill Certain Roles (sets of behaviors)
What kind of skills do
Activities managers perform
that makes them “successful”
Depends on what success is.
Human Resources and networking
Achieving Organizational Goals
Decision making, planning, controlling,
These two sets of activities frequently
work against each other.
Organizational behavior is an applied
behavioral science that is built upon
contributions from a number of behavioral
The predominant areas are psychology,
sociology, social psychology,
anthropology, and political science.
Exhibit 1-3 overviews the major
contributions to the study of
Psychology is the science that seeks to
measure, explain, and sometimes change
the behavior of humans and other animals.
fatigue, boredom, and other factors relevant to
working conditions that could impede efficient
learning, perception, personality, emotions,
training, leadership effectiveness, needs and
motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision-
making processes, performance appraisals,
attitude measurement, employee selection
techniques, work design, and job stress
Sociologists study the social system in
which individuals fill their roles; that is,
sociology studies people in relation to
their fellow human beings.
Their greatest contribution to OB is
through their study of group behavior in
organizations, particularly formal and
Social psychology blends the concepts
of psychology and sociology.
It focuses on the influence of people on
Major area—how to implement it and how
to reduce barriers to its acceptance.
Anthropology is the study of societies to
learn about human beings and their
Anthropologists work on cultures and
environments; for instance, they have
helped us understand differences in
fundamental values, attitudes, and
behavior among people in different
countries and within different
Why is the study of organization
Viewing organizations as closed
systems is no longer valid
Components are no longer
homogeneous – Work Place diversity
Globalization makes hierarchical
communications too slow
Information Technology gives power
and information to the one who can use
Why is the study of organization
The environment is changing rapidly
making adaptation and change crucial
to survival- organizations as closed
systems isn’t a valid model.
Improving Quality and Productivity
Improving ethical behavior
Yes they do because organizations
are social systems and the care and
feeding of people and their relationships
is crucial to the organizations being able
to be effective
No, most organizations are social
systems secondarily. Their first need is
to be efficient and to make money.
Managers need to be plugged into the
outside environment but minimizing
resources such as people is crucial to
the success of the enterprise.