3. Introduction :
Hyperlipidemia, also known as dyslipidemia or high cholesterol, means you have
too many lipids (fats) in your blood. Your liver creates cholesterol to help you
digest food and make things like hormones. But you also eat cholesterol in foods
from the meat and dairy aisles. Abnormally elevated levels of fats in blood ,
these lipids adhere to the wall of arteries and restrict blood flow and may
cause heart attack or stroke .
There are 3 major lipids in our blood
5. Lipoproteins :
Lipids are produced in liver . From liver lipids are not able to move to blood
stream , because they are insolube in blood plasma , so liver wraps around
protein in liver , resulting in new component called lipoproteins . They move to
blood stream through out the body .
Types of lipoproteins :
7. Types :
Hyperlipidemia may be further classified into :
(a) Primary : They are genetic disorders characterized by distinct clinical
(b) Secondary : Due to underlying disease process usually thyroid , liver and
9. Mechanism of action :
HMG –CoA Reductase inhibitors :
Decreases LDL increases HDL and decreases triglycerides . The drugs which are used to
achieve this purpose includes : Fluvastatin , lovastatin , pravastatin , rosvastation .
11. Nicotinic acid :
To decrease VLDL production , Nicotinic acid inhibit hormone sensitive lipase .
It increase VLDL and decrease LDL and triglycerides .
The drug used is NIACIN .
Side effects : skin flushing , hyperglycemia .
13. Bile acids sequestrants ( resins) :
They are anion exchange resins which binds bile acids in intestiones forms the complex
followed by loss of bile acids in stool and conversions of cholesterol in bile acids in blood .
If there is decreased concentration of cholesterol , there will be increase in LDL
receptors , increase intake of circulating LDL and decrease cholesterol LDL levels .
15. Fibrates :
Mechanism of action :
Agonists at PPAR ( Peroxisome – proliferator Activated Receptor )
Expression of genes responsible for increased activity of plasma lipoproteins lipase
hydrolysis of VLDL and chylomicrons
increase clearance of LDL and HDL in liver
17. Causes :
Drinking a lot of alcohol.
Eating foods that have a lot of saturated fats or trans fats.
Sitting too much instead of being active.
Inheriting genes that make your cholesterol levels unhealthy.
18. Symptoms :
Chest pain or pressure (angina)
Blockage of blood vessels in brain and heart.
High blood pressure.
19. Diagnosis :
Hyperlipidemia has no symptoms, so the only way to detect it is to have your doctor request a
blood test called a lipid panel or a lipid profile. Your doctor will use your lipid panel to make a
This test determines your cholesterol levels. A healthcare professional will take a sample of your
blood and send it to a lab for testing, then get back to you with a full report. Your report will
show your levels of:
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
20. Treatment :
Statins are the most common medicine for high cholesterol. They reduce the amount of
cholesterol your body makes. Lifestyle changes
Eat a heart healthy diet
Seek strategies to stop smoking
21. Questions related :
What is hyperlipidemia ? Types of
lipoproteins ? Can u tell any of
the cause of this disease ? Mechanism of HMG CoA
reductase inhibitors ? Symptoms of hyperlipidemia ?