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• Gender equality is achieved when women and
men enjoy the same rights and opportunities
across all sectors of society including
economic participation and decision-making.
• Differences in opportunities and access to
available resources between men and women
do existall over the globe, but they are most
common in poor and least-developed
• Since the numbers of women in educational
administration have remained very small
compared to the numbers of men in educational
administration, the research on gender equity
has focused on women. But the majority of
educational leaders in schools and districts are
• Women still dominate the teaching forces from
which leaders are recruited, and prepare for
leadership in degree programs, and aspire to the
History of educational leadership
Representation of women in
• Comparing the representation of women in
school administration “20 years later” is not as
easy as looking up the numbers.
• As was true in the mid 1980s, documenting
women’s representation in formal leadership
positions in schools continues to be difficult.
Challenges to Women in Educational
• The largest body of research related to
women has examined barriers to women in
entering the leadership hierarchy or in moving
up that hierarchy.
Family and Home Responsibilities
• Family and home responsibilities, place-bound
circumstances, moves with spouses were early
contributors to women’s lack of administrative
• Either because the demands of family
on women aspirants restricted them or
because those who hired believed that
women would be hindered by family
Lack of Support, Encouragement, and
• Support has continued to be an important factor
for women moving into administration. Most
researchers found that family endorsements and
support and mentoring made the difference in
encouraging women into principal ships.
• women should be encouraged to be on search
teams for administrators and that professors of
educational administration could encourage
women by assuring school boards that women
can be competent administrators.
Gender Bias and stereotypes
• Unfortunately, women do experience a strong
gender bias when being evaluated for
promotions on both their level of
performance as well as their potential impact.
THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE
STATUS OF WOMEN ACT 2012
• National Commission on the Status of Women is
established under the National Commission on the Status
of Women Act 2012. The Commission is the first forum
established under a statute to ensure that issues faced by
women in Pakistan may addressed in systematic manner.
• Under the Act, the Federal Government is empowered to
constitute the Commissions Chairperson and
members from all over Pakistan. The major functions of the
commission is to examine
the policies and programs initiated by the Federal Governm
ent for gender equality and women empowerment, to
examine all Federal laws and rules that are against interest
of women and make recommendations to the concerned
FOR LEADERSHIP PRACTICE
• Women in positions of leadership need to
communicate the feeling of efficacy they
derive from their work. Emphasizing their joy
in the work they do might motivate other
women to seek positions of leadership.
• Women serving in key leadership roles must
talk about and think creatively with other
women about ways to successfully balance
family responsibilities and job demands.
• Women and men in positions of power in
educational systems must deliberately mentor
more women and especially more women of
• Leaders need to be thoughtful about social
justice and be strategic in promoting equity.
• women teachers must be directed toward
leadership and assured that administrators
can focus on children and curriculum.
• Education leaders at all levels should ensure
that all applicable equity laws are fully
• Byrnes, J., Miller, D., & Schafer, W.
(1999).Gender Differences in Risk Taking; A
Meta Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(3),