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History• Evolved along with badminton and Lawn tennis in 1880s• Early version of game in 1890 had cloth covered rubber ball, strung racket and wooden fences around table• Changes started in 1900 when celluloid ball was used and name changed to ping-pong due to sound of ball
HistoryGames became popular and was known bydifferent names such as• Ping Pong or • Indoor Tennis Gossima • Pom-Pom• Table Tennis • Pim-Pam• Whiff Waff • Royal Game• Parlour Tennis
Equipment• Table Tennis Racket A table tennis racket is made up of two distinct parts - a wooden blade which incorporates the handle and table tennis rubbers affixed to each side of the blade using special table tennis glue Most rackets are actually all very similar in size - about 15cm (6 inches) across and 25cm (10 inches) long including the handle..
Equipment• Table The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with a Masonite (a type of hardboard) or similarly manufactured timber, layered with a smooth, low-friction coating. The table or playing surface is divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. An ITTF approved table surface must be in a green or blue color...
Equipment• Ball The international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm on to a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Olympic Games.
Basics• Grips – Pen Hold • The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. • The style of play among penhold players can vary greatly from player to player. • The most popular style, usually referred to as the Chinese penhold style, involves curling the middle, ring, and fourth finger on the back of the blade with the three fingers always remain touching one another.
Basics• Grips – Shake hand • The shakehand grip (also called the "shakehands grip") is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one performs a handshake. • The grip is sometimes referred to as the "tennis grip" or the "Western grip," although it has no correlation to the Western grip used in tennis. • The shakehand grip is traditionally popular among players originating in Western nations and South Asian nations.
Basics• Strokes – The Drive • Drives, a light topspin stroke that produces a low ball trajectory, are the primary offensive strokes in table tennis. • One employs drives to force errors and to set up winners. The mastery of both the forehand and backhand drives is important because it will give your opponent less options when using attacking strokes of his/her own. • In executing this and all other offensive strokes, the usage of the entire body in unison is important for consistency and power. Keep in the ready position until you are ready to execute the shot and remain relaxed but responsive (this is very important).
Basics• Strokes – Forehand Drive • Keep the upper arm close, but not flush, to the torso. The forearm(form a rough 90 degree bend with the upper arm) should be drawn back to the 3 oclock position, and let the waist turn naturally along with the arm(this is where relaxing is important). • Shift your weight toward the right foot at the same time. While shifting your weight back to your left foot, swing forward with a slight upward motion, with the waist providing additional force in the swing. • Use the elbow as a pivot point; it should not move so much up and down, but also should be allowed to move slightly forward in the follow-through. • Contact with the ball should be made slightly to the side of the body after the top of the bounce.
Basics• Strokes – Forehand Drive • Make sure the paddle is somewhat closed(or facing downwards at an angle), and remains that way throughout the stroke. Follow- through should finish when racket is parallel with the left shoulder. Immediately return to the ready position. The left foot should be slightly in front of the right for support.
Basics• Strokes – Backhand Drive • From the ready position, the waist turns left with the racket pointing towards the 9 oclock position. • When following through, contact with the ball is made in front of the body, slightly after the top of the bounce. Let the elbow again act as the pivot point, and snap the forearm forward in a slightly upward direction. • Make sure the paddle is closed. Follow-through should finish naturally (about 12~1 oclock) after contact with ball. The left foot should be slightly ahead of the right.
Basics• Strokes – The Push • Pushes are the basic backspin shots, used to change the pace of an exchange or to return certain very low and close shots such as backspin serves. • A generally defensive shot, it allows placement anywhere on the table that is difficult to attack when executed properly. All pushes should be done with the right foot stepping in. • The ball is contacted right after the bounce with an open racket. How open the racket is depends on the intensity of backspin on the ball. Heavier backspin requires a more open racket to return over the net. Try to keep the ball low, varying the amount of backspin and racket angle.
Basics• Strokes – Forehand Push • Bring the racket slightly up and back, while keeping the elbow at your waist. Bend the wrist back. Swing forward with a downward motion, and when the racket reaches the ball snap the wrist forward for extra racket speed. • With an open racket, graze the bottom half of the ball. An ideal contact point is right after the ball bounces. Never push a ball at the top of the bounce, because the resulting return will pop the ball high enough for the opponent to execute a smash. Try to hit the ball in front and slightly to the right of your body. Follow through forward and slightly down, and return to the ready position.
Basics• Strokes – Backhand Push • Bring the racket slightly up and back, close into your stomach while cocking the wrist back. This time try to contact the ball directly in front of your body, and remember to keep the elbow still while the forearm and wrist move forward and down. Graze the bottom of the ball and follow through. – Block • Blocking allows a player to use the opponents force against him/her, and is done immediately after the bounce so that maximum control and speed are retained. Adjusting the racket angle depends on the severity of topspin on the ball; the more topspin there is, the more you should close the racket. Being essentially a cut-down drive, there is very little backswing and follow-through.
Basics• Strokes – The Smash • The smash, or kill, is the put-away stroke of table tennis. Any ball that is high enough and close enough to the opponents side can be smashed, although some opportunities are better than others. • Smashing combines waist, forearm, and wrist movement to the fullest extent. A good smash is very hard to return, but it can be done. Do not dawdle after you have executed a smash. The ball is contacted at the top of the bounce at its highest point.
Basics• Strokes – Forehand Smash Similar to the drive, the key differences include: • A longer backswing • Greater weight transfer during swing • Faster, more intense snapping of the forearm when contacting ball • Depending on ball height and position, the racket is closed more than usual to keep the ball in the court • Longer follow-through, but dont forget to anticipate a possible return!
Basics• Strokes – Backhand Smash • Again, use the guidelines above and apply them to the backhand drive. Be sure to snap the wrist more as you contact the ball and finish in a long follow-through
Basics• Strokes – Basic Service Techniques The following are the basic rules of service: • The ball must be held above the table level in order for the opponent and umpire to see it. • The ball must be held in the palm of the hand with fingers stretched, and tossed vertically at least six inches. • The ball must be struck only on the way down. • The ball must be struck behind the end line.
Basics• Strokes – Basic Service Techniques Imparting spin on these serves should be concentrated mostly on the wrist. • Backspin- just like pushing or chopping, a backspin serve is executed with an open racket slicing the bottom of the ball. • Topspin- like driving, topspin serves can be done hitting with a flat racket, or like looping, where the player grazes the top of the ball with a closed racket for more spin. • Sidespin- simply hit the back of the ball in a left-to-right or right- to-left motion, as desired. To make the stroke easier, try holding the racket in front of you and brushing the bottom of the ball in a pendulum motion.
Rules• The Table – The upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, shall be rectangular, 2.74m long and 1.525m wide, and shall lie in a horizontal plane 76cm above the floor. – The playing surface shall not include the vertical sides of the tabletop. – The playing surface may be of any material and shall yield a uniform bounce of about 23cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30cm. – The playing surface shall be uniformly dark coloured and matt, but with a white side line, 2cm wide, along each 2.74m edge and a white end line, 2cm wide, along each 1.525m edge.
Rules• The Table – The playing surface shall be divided into 2 equal courts by a vertical net running parallel with the end lines, and shall be continuous over the whole area of each court. – For doubles, each court shall be divided into 2 equal half-courts by a white centre line, 3mm wide, running parallel with the side lines; the centre line shall be regarded as part of each right half-court.
Rules• The Net Assembly – The net assembly shall consist of the net, its suspension and the supporting posts, including the clamps attaching them to the table. – The net shall be suspended by a cord attached at each end to an upright post 15.25cm high, the outside limits of the post being 15.25cm outside the side line. – The top of the net, along its whole length, shall be 15.25cm above the playing surface. – The bottom of the net, along its whole length, shall be as close as possible to the playing surface and the ends of the net shall be as close as possible to the supporting posts.
Rules• The Service – Service shall start with the ball resting freely on the open palm of the servers stationary free hand. – The server shall then project the ball near vertically upwards, without imparting spin, so that it rises at least 16cm after leaving the palm of the free hand and then falls without touching anything before being struck. – As the ball is falling the server shall strike it so that it touches first his court and then, after passing over or around the net assembly, touches directly the receivers court; in doubles, the ball shall touch successively the right half court of server and receiver. – From the start of service until it is struck, the ball shall be above the level of the playing surface and behind the servers end line, and it shall not be hidden from the receiver by the server or his doubles partner or by anything they wear or carry.
Rules• The Return – The ball, having been served or returned, shall be struck so that it passes over or around the net assembly and touches the opponents court, either directly or after touching the net assembly.• The Order of Play – In singles, the server shall first make a service, the receiver shall then make a return and thereafter server and receiver alternately shall each make a return. – In doubles, the server shall first make a service, the receiver shall then make a return, the partner of the server shall then make a return, the partner of the receiver shall then make a return and thereafter each player in turn in that sequence shall make a return. – When two players who are in wheelchairs due to a physical disability are a pair playing doubles, the server shall first make a service, the receiver shall then make a return but thereafter either player of the disabled pair may make returns.
Rules• A Let – The rally shall be a let : • if in service the ball, in passing over or around the net assembly, touches it, provided the service is otherwise correct or the ball is obstructed by the receiver or his partner • if the service is delivered when the receiving player or pair is not ready, provided that neither the receiver nor his partner attempts to strike the ball • if failure to make a service or a return or otherwise to comply with the Laws is due to a disturbance outside the control of the player
Rules• A Let – The rally shall be a let : – if play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire; – if the receiver is in wheelchair owing to a physical disability and in service the ball, provided that the service is otherwise correct » after touching the receiver’s court returns in the direction of the net » comes to rest on the receivers court » in singles leaves the receiver’s court after touching it by either of its sidelines
Rules• A Let – Play may be interrupted • to correct an error in the order of serving, receiving or ends • to introduce the expedite system • to warn or penalise a player or adviser • because the conditions of play are disturbed in a way which could affect the outcome of the rally
Rules• A Point – Unless the rally is a let, a player shall score a point – if an opponent fails to make a correct service; – if an opponent fails to make a correct return; – if, after he has made a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than the net assembly before being struck by an opponent; – if the ball passes over his court or beyond his end line without touching his court, after being struck by an opponent; – if an opponent obstructs the ball; – if an opponent deliberately strikes the ball twice in succession
Rules• A Point – if an opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface does not comply with the requirements – if an opponent, or anything an opponent wears or carries, moves the playing surface; – if an opponent, or anything an opponent wears or carries, touches the net assembly; – if an opponents free hand touches the playing surface; – if a doubles opponent strikes the ball out of the sequence established by – the first server and first receiver; – as provided under the expedite system
Rules• A Game – A game shall be won by the player or pair first scoring 11 points unless both players or pairs score 10 points, when the game shall be won by the first player or pair subsequently gaining a lead of 2 points.• A Match – A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games.
Rules• The Order of Serving, Receiving and End – The right to choose the initial order of serving, receiving and ends shall be decided by lot and the winner may choose to serve or to receive first or to start at a particular end. – When one player or pair has chosen to serve or to receive first or to start at a particular end, the other player or pair shall have the other choice. – After each 2 points have been scored the receiving player or pair shall become the serving player or pair and so on until the end of the game, unless both players or pairs score 10 points or the expedite system is in operation, when the sequences of serving and receiving shall be the same but each player shall serve for only 1 point in turn. – In each game of a doubles match, the pair having the right to serve first shall choose which of them will do so and in the first game of a match the receiving pair shall decide which of them will receive first; in subsequent games of the match, the first server having been chosen, the first receiver shall be the player who served to him in the preceding game
Rules• The Order of Serving, Receiving and End – In doubles, at each change of service the previous receiver shall become the server and the partner of the previous server shall become the receiver. – The player or pair serving first in a game shall receive first in the next game of the match and in the last possible game of a doubles match the pair due to receive next shall change their order of receiving when first one pair scores 5 points. – The player or pair starting at one end in a game shall start at the other end in the next game of the match and in the last possible game of a match the players or pairs shall change ends when first one player or pair scores 5 points
Rules• Out of Order of Serving, Receiving or Ends – If a player serves or receives out of turn, play shall be interrupted by the umpire as soon as the error is discovered and shall resume with those players serving and receiving who should be server and receiver respectively at the score that has been reached, according to the sequence established at the beginning of the match and, in doubles, to the order of serving chosen by the pair having the right to serve first in the game during which the error is discovered. – If the players have not changed ends when they should have done so, play shall be interrupted by the umpire as soon as the error is discovered and shall resume with the players at the ends at which they should be at the score that has been reached, according to the sequence established at the beginning of the match. – In any circumstances, all points scored before the discovery of an error shall be reckoned.
Start Your Play• Warming up helps get your body ready for the rapid coordinated moves that make table tennis such an intensive sport.• There are no special or unique exercises; its just like warming up before playing any other sport• A light jog, jump ropes, and various stretches help loosen your muscles and get you "in gear" for optimum performance.
Safety• Warming up before play is important and will reduce the chances of muscle and joint injuries. It is ideal to start with general warm up like stretching and jogging. Then spend some time on specific warm up like playing gentle shots for the first 2 -3 minutes with another player. Gradually upping the pace and tempo.• On an average, players need about 15 minutes to warm up themselves. Cooling down after play is important in preventing injuries. Avoid lying down straight after play. It is good to walk around or just do a few simple stretching exercises to cool down and relax your body.