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Digital literacy divide has been much lamented, but current trends may help balance it. As seen in my survey, ELLs mirror many mainstream societal trends.Besides being good learner centered teachers who teach leveraging what students already know, we should not assume that our learners do or do not understand technology. I’ve found my learners are adept at using mobile sites, but the desktop version has the added difficulty of typing. On top of this, password and cookies are often automatically saved on phones, which are never shut off.However, when they do shut their phone off or access email on desktop, they’ve forgotten the password-set them up with a service like Gmail that uses texts to verify identify or sends password hints via text. In short, learners love mobile apps for ease of use: no password retrieval, easy clicking and scrolling without precision clicking required.
----- Meeting Notes (4/17/13 12:59) -----Any and all of these features can be put towards meeting educational or real life goals-young learners and old often don't realize the features they have
Handout #1 (as seen in next slide)
*********HANDOUT*****Discuss results of brainstorm
****HANDOUT #2 discussion*****Students with mobile experience may seem to be beginners with computers, but actually they already have some important knowledge. It’s important to reinforce for students that haven’t learned to use icons to navigate, but can type and use a mouse.
Duolingo shown in a study by as effective as a first year semester of college in terms of vocabulary and fluency development. And it’s free.Twitter: news reports, sharing of articles, discussions
Crowd-sourced, meaning that Duolingo sometimes asks users for translations. Duolingo languages currently available: English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, ItalianiOS only: in November 2012 announced intention to create Android version in one year’s time, be on look out in November 2013!If you are amore advanced learner, you have three chances to unlock the higher level lessons; but this ‘shortcut’ still takes some time.Points to note: When downloading an app, do a bit of research. Look at the icon on the web or your other source for the app and then check if it is the same. Also read reviews of an app before you download and only download from trusted sources like www.cnet.com, or on your phone’s Google Play or App Store on iPhone.
Lessons are pictures based (left) or you can read articles translated by other users on the right (higher level task)
It’s automated, but still potentially useful-not as detailed as teacher feedback, but gives user an idea of which skills and vocabulary knowledge are strong versus weak.
Easier set up than desktop-no question of where to click.Sound icon is speaker.Three hearts are how many chances you have to pass the ‘test’-video game derived feature
Why Cell Phones?• Digital Divide: Disadvantaged adults just as likelyto be part of 88% who use cell phones• Funds of Knowledge: ELLs often come in withmore knowledge than we acknowledge• Ease of Use: no typing, intuitive design, storedpassword/mobile devices are rarely turned off: ELLs cantherefore learn to use web before learning these skills• Variety: Use for scavenger hunts, real life practice andhomework assignments• A Mobile Future:• ‘Responsive Design’ a hot tech topic• Multiple means of access: xBox, iPod, etc.
• Mexico: huge emerging mobile market• Almost 80% of 15-30 year old have downloaded apps• > 80% use email and text messages• Other markets: Russia, South Africa• Android: preferred OS in most countries• Low-income families: American teens from familiesmaking < $30k/year most likely to use phone as primaryweb access (30% compared to 24%)Accenture Mobile Web Watch Survey 2012:http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture-Mobile-Web-Watch-Internet-Usage-Survey-2012.pdfPew Internet: Teens and Technology 2013: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Teens-and-Tech.aspxELLS AND CELL PHONE USE
CELL PHONE USE IN USAhttp://services.google.com/fh/files/blogs/Final_Mobile_Internet_Smartphone_Adoption_Insights_2011v3.pdf
Survey of Genesis CenterStudents• 20% communicate with family mainly through cellphones• 68% have a computer• 64% say they use a computer• 44% use it daily or sometimes• 68% say they enjoy using a computer• But 96% have a phone, and 64% have a smartphone• Students without smart phones still had manyfeatures on their phones
Feature %Calculator 64%Texting 76%Calendar 72%Games 64%Voicemail 68%Voice Recorder 60%Stop watch 16%These features are all ways to getlearners thinking strategically about theircell phone use
• Brainstorm commonfeatures of „dumb‟ phones1• Reflect on contexts inwhich each feature couldbe used2• Share3PAIR AND SHARE
Pair and Share: How could you usea feature phone as an aid inteaching these skill sets?
FEATURE PHONES 4 LEARNING ENGLISH• Voicemail, picture or video homeworkassignments• Scavenger hunts: students take pics or videos• Classroom Twitter project: after setting upaccount, tweets can be done entirely via textmessage• Use as theatrical prop: students „call‟ eachother• Error correction using voice recorder• Timed readings using stop-watch• Consumer skills using calculator• Soft skills and text messaging
Skills may not be acquired in this order!IncreasingDifficultyMouse use &typing skillsUsing foldersand filesystemBUILDING UPON SUCCESS: TECHNOLOGY SKILLSUsing iconsto navigate
ICONS AS PART OF THETECHNOLOGY LEARNING CURVE• Learning to “read” icons helps computerskills improve on desktop machines orother unfamiliar environments• Icons are also perceived as more usefuland create more positive userexperiences• Authors of study support training inicons may aid in making connections tolearning computer organization systemsin general“The use of icons and labels in an end user applicationprogram: an empirical study on learning and retention.”http://portfolio.educ.kent.edu/daltone/cmc2/articles/jp_use%20of%20icon%20labels_wiedenbeck.pdf
SMART PHONES 4 LEARNING ENGLISH• Language learning apps: get 100+ hours with out ofclass time to achieve EFL: Duolingo• Voice recognition software: use to spell-check,increase comprehensibility• Collaborate via Google Docs (Android app) orSkype• Scavenger hunts: student use GPS, Google maps,or use an „augmented reality‟ app like Junaio• Classroom Twitter projects: poems, collaborativestories60 Examples of Twitter in class: http://fluency21.com/blog/2013/02/19/60-inspiring-examples-of-twitter-in-the-classroom/Duolingo effectiveness: http://static.duolingo.com/s3/DuolingoReport_Final.pdf
MASTERING A SKILL ONDUOLINGO MOBILE• Uses drag anddrop instead oftyping• Intuitive interfacemakes use oficons, familiarforms and threehearts “warningsystem”
Other Resources• Next best language-learning app: Busuu. Not crowd-sourced or as individually responsive as Duolingo, but agood alternative• Mango: desktop friendly website accessible to anyonewith a RI library card from home or in library• Google in Education:http://www.google.com/edu/teachers/• www.teachthought.com- Blog with ideas on usingtechnology in the classroom• www.polleverywhere.com - Interactive quizzes to collectstudent data or opinions anonymously
SUMMARYStrong reasons to use cell phones in some capacity in class• Closing Digital Divide by using ELLs existing knowledge• Greater accessibility through mobile devices• Get ELLs to use phones for new strategic & language orientated purposesFeature phones (“dumb” phones) can be used for technologyand content instruction• Texting, camera, calculators and calendars are ubiquitousSmart phone applications are varied• Easier interface: no typing or clicking• Many language learning apps of varying quality: Duolingo works and is free• Other applications include: augmented reality, out of class collaborationCell phones can be used strategically and to createstrategic thinkers who understand technology isalso opportunity
ADDITIONAL READINGMoll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & González, N. (1992). Funds ofknowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes andclassrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132-141Online at: http://www.sonoma.edu/users/f/filp/ed415/moll.pdfWiedenbeck, Susan. "The Use of Icons and Labels in an End UserApplication Program: An Empirical Study of Learning and Retention."Behaviour & Information Technology 18.2 (1999): 68-82. Print.Online here:http://portfolio.educ.kent.edu/daltone/cmc2/articles/jp_use%20of%20icon%20labels_wiedenbeck.pdf