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Aedes aegypti & Climate Change
Presentation · November 2022
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Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed
Suez Canal University
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Aedes aegypti & Climate
Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti) is one of the main species responsible
for the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens worldwide. It is a
highly competent vector for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Many
developing countries have ideal climatic conditions for Ae. aegypti
development and struggle with diseases transmitted by this species.
It is restricted to warm, urban environments where it breeds around
houses and in man-made containers. It may be due to a number of
factors, including a lack of basic health services, precarious public
health systems, precipitation patterns, the altitude, and human
impacts as population growth, and intensive and uncontrolled
Incorporating socio-economic factors, the global distribution and
abundance show pronounced clustering of the vectors around
densely populated urban areas, reflected by the abundance of
potential food (blood meals) and human-created larval sites.
However, an overwintering population of Ae. aegypti adults was
recently located near Washington D.C. (USA), which has an
average winter temperature lower than what has previously shown
to be the limit for the development of this species.
Also, temperature is a crucial factor impacting the distribution of
this vector, climate change is likely to impact its range. The
increase in the abundance of this vector correlates closely with the
global temperature increase. A rise in temperature directly affect
the size of vector populations and increase the number of diseases,
such as vector-borne diseases and the incidence of epidemics of
Both species’ eggs are resistant to desiccation, allowing them to
survive unfavorable conditions and contributing to their ability to
spread to new areas via the national and international
transportation of materials (e.g., tires, plant pots) containing
viable but dormant eggs.
Climate change is expected to result in major shifts in vector
distribution and/or in the expansion of geographical ranges of
both mosquito species with a potential health impact on local
populations of humans and other animals due to an enhanced
transmission rate of pathogens, including dengue and Zika (Zika
virus also belongs to the family flavivirus and resembles dengue
so much that it could almost be referred to as the “fifth dengue
According to the World Health Organization, dengue virus
complex, which refers to the four serotypes that cause dengue
fever, is the fastest spreading arbovirus; estimates show that 390
million people are currently infected per year, while 3.9 billion
are considered at risk.
Dengue and chikungunya fever pose a major risk with frequent or
continuous outbreaks. Both of them cause flu-like symptoms,
such as fever, headache, and nausea, but chikungunya can cause
severe joint pain and rarely causes death.
No vaccine is currently available to prevent chikungunya, so
vector control and personal protection from mosquito bites are
the main methods for avoiding disease transmission. While
vaccines to prevent dengue infections are being developed, with
one currently on the market, but only individuals who are
seropositive are recommended to receive the vaccine.
Efforts to minimize greenhouse gas emissions, such as land
restoration and combating deforestation, are useful for reducing
the occurrence of Ae. aegypti and other insect vectors.
Mangrove habitat is rich in detritus surface and high in organic
soil content which feeds mosquito larvae. Opinions about the
function of mangrove forests as a barrier to prevent mosquitoes
from flying to the settlement areas is being debated therefore
following future study is needed to confirm that.
A new study finds mangrove soil held around 6.4 billion metric
tons of carbon in 2000. Mangroves provide massive benefits in
addition to storing carbon, reducing flooding and erosion from
storms, acting as nurseries for fish, and filtering pollutants from
They help filter river water of pollutants and trap excess sediment
before it reaches the ocean. Their role as fish nurseries can have
big impacts on local economies and food production.
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