Mediation is a mode of negotiation in which a
mutually acceptable third party helps the
parties to a conflict find a solution that they
cannot find by themselves.
Mediation is sometimes referred to as assisted
negotiation. It does not involve a judge or
require testimony, and it is not limited by
rules of evidence. Instead, mediation is
informal, flexible and private.
The Five Main Causes of Conflict
1. information conflicts
2. values conflicts
3. interest conflicts
4. relationship conflicts
5. structural conflicts.
Three Phases of Mediation
Mediation consists of these three distinct phases, including an introduction,
problem-solving and closure phase.
• The mediator sets ground rules while suggesting a schedule. The mediator
also oversees meetings, giving each side the opportunity to state their
perspectives and their preferred solutions to the conflict.
• The parties discuss relevant issues, their interests and possible solutions.
Each party is able to speak with the mediator in private to discuss its position.
• Both parties state their terms for resolving the conflict before drafting a
document detailing the terms of their commitments.
TURKEY AS A MEDIATOR
Turkey is working to create effective dispute resolution tools for a
variety of issues.
The country is squarely in the middle of all of the neighboring regions’
political disputes, and it is impacted directly or indirectly,
historically and culturally, by the crises that are occurring across
Now the whole world undergoing a political earthquake, posing new
international issues. In this new era, the need for mediation is
Turkey’s position has been built over the previous three decades on
the effective use of diplomacy to resolve disagreements and crises.
Turkey’s profile and role as a mediator is unique.
It has maritime borders with both Ukraine and Russia. It is a NATO
member; at the same time, it is Russia’s largest trade partner in the
Middle East and North Africa region. Both countries coordinated
efforts in conflict zones, 2 years ago in the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
For the past 30 years, Turkey and Armenia have had no
diplomatic or trade connections, and the negotiations are
the first attempt to re-establish ties since a 2009 peace
agreement. That agreement was never approved, and
relations between the two countries have remained
Ankara supported Azerbaijan during the Nagorno-Karabakh
crisis in 2020, accusing ethnic Armenian forces of seizing
Azeri land. Following the fighting, Turkey began pressing for
rapprochement in order to gain more power in the region.
Turkey has extensive economic, military, cultural and
linguistic ties with Azerbaijan, and provided Baku with
sophisticated equipment such as drones throughout the
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which were a major source of
So, on October 6, 2022, 13 years later, a meeting between N. Pashinyan and R.T.
Erdogan took place in Prague, after which the Armenian government issued the
following message: "The importance of direct contacts and high–level meetings in
the context of the settlement of relations between Armenia and Turkey was
Nikol Pashinyan and Recep Tayyip Erdogan discussed the process of
normalization of Armenian-Turkish relations and possible further steps in this
The need for the speedy implementation of the agreements reached as a result of
the discussions of the special representatives of the two countries was stressed.
In particular, we are talking about the opening of the land border for citizens of
third countries, the implementation of direct air cargo transportation between
Armenia and Turkey.”
After the meeting in Prague, Erdogan said at a press conference: "The meeting with N.
Pashinyan was held in a positive atmosphere. Ankara strives for the gradual
normalization of relations between Armenia, Turkey and Azerbaijan and the
settlement of contradictions between the parties. Armenia and Turkey will
continue contacts at the level of special representatives and can achieve full
normalization in our region on the basis of good-neighborly relations. Turkey
does not put forward any preconditions for the normalization of relations with
Armenia. As soon as Armenia signs a peace agreement with Azerbaijan, it will
have no problems with us. We need to open the borders – we will open, and all of
them — air, land and railway tracks."
THE WAR IN UKRAINE
Among the pack of countries vying to act as mediators in the
Russia-Ukraine war, Turkey has emerged as the winner.
Ankara’s status is considered as a neutral party in the war in
Turkey could have been caught in the middle of a conflict between
two ostensible allies. Instead, Turkey, a NATO member,
continues to send arms to Ukraine while refusing to sanction
Russia and is still respected by both sides.
During a telephone conversation on January 20 with his Ukrainian
counterpart Vladimir Zelensky, Recep Tayip Erdogan confirmed
his readiness to act as a mediator in establishing peace
between Russia and Ukraine. In addition, Erdogan expressed his
condolences to Zelensky in connection with the crash of a
helicopter carrying representatives of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of Ukraine, the text says. Also, according to the statement
of the office, the parties discussed the course of the armed
conflict in Ukraine.
THE WAR IN UKRAINE
Ankara has repeatedly come up with the idea of becoming a
mediator in negotiations between Russia and Ukraine. Consultations
between Russian and Ukrainian delegations were also held in
Press Secretary of the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry
Peskov told reporters at a briefing on January 11 that Russia has
always been ready to solve problems through negotiations. At the
same time, he noted that Ukrainian laws prohibit the president of this
country from conducting a dialogue with the Kremlin, and Western
states "are not inclined to allow Kiev any flexibility in this matter."
The number of countries reusing to take sides in the Russia-Ukraine
war isn’t limited to mediators. India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and
Morocco are among the countries that have chosen to stay “neutral”.
The reasons for such a stance vary, yet there are some
commonalities. India and Pakistan face a diplomatic bind as they try
to balance ties with the West and Russia. The neutrality of Gulf states
reflects deeper ties cultivated with Russia in recent years.
TURKEY HAS BECOME ONE OF THE FEW COUNTRIES
THAT IN RECENT YEARS HAS STOOD OUT MOST IN THE
WORLD FOR ITS ENTREPRENEURIAL POLICY AIMED AT
CONFLICTS AND CIVIL WARS IN ALL REGIONS OF THE
WORLD, INTER-COUNTRY PROBLEMS AND REGIONAL