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Presentation On Edf 2005

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Presentation On Edf 2005

  1. 1. Wang and Oppenheimer; Environmental Defense Fund, 2005 The Latest Myths and Facts on Global Warming An example of a group-led discussion on a paper
  2. 2. Summary <ul><li>Common myths are presented and “busted” using references to current data. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these topics are also discussed in the IPCC report. </li></ul><ul><li>The overwhelming conclusion is that Global Warming is happening and is caused by humans. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factors that control Earth’s Climate <ul><li>External Controls (What energy comes IN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun’s Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt and wobble of the earth’s axis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Controls (What energy goes OUT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat released from the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s reflectivity ( albedo ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air and ocean circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(clouds, water vapor, air pollution) </li></ul></ul></ul>Affected by Human Activity
  4. 4. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Who are the authors? What is their motivation? What is the EDF? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe all their statements? Where is the evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you care more about regional or global changes? How would this affect politics and ecology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does it matter if the warming is caused by humans or not? Why does it matter if there have been previous warm periods or not? </li></ul><ul><li>Why would urbanization be important? What is the relative contribution of cities versus the surface area of the earth? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 1a.
  6. 6. Hockey Stick Debate <ul><li>Mann, M. E.; Bradley, R. S. & Hughes, M. K. (1998) Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries , Nature 392 : 779-787 . </li></ul><ul><li>Soon, W.-H., S.L. Baliunas, C. Idso, S. Idso, and D.R. Legates (2003) Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal. Energy and Environment 14 : 233-296. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 1b.
  8. 8. Discussion Qstns Cont’d <ul><li>What is the difference between Climate Change and Global Warming? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between Weather and Climate? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the people spreading these myths? Why are people so skeptical about Climate Change? And Science in general? </li></ul><ul><li>Is one hot summer enough evidence? Example: coral bleaching in 1997-1998, was also a Strong El Nino year… </li></ul><ul><li>Think of economics: as countries develop (and make more money) do they increase or decrease emissions? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 2.
  10. 10. Meehl et al, 2004: J. Climate.
  11. 11. <ul><li>What causes changes in climate besides carbon dioxide? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a feedback? What are examples of positive and negative feedbacks in climate? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the ocean involved in climate? </li></ul><ul><li>Making decisions based on uncertain or incomplete data is difficult for most people. Think of examples of other actions we take based on uncertain data… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Questions from YOU? <ul><li>What did you find most surprising? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you not understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Which myths had you heard before? </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you still believe? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you trust these authors? </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation or prevention? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relevance for Final Projects <ul><li>How could Global Warming/Climate Change affect the water bodies around NYC? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics are worth looking at for evidence of Climate Change? </li></ul><ul><li>What timescale should you look at for evidence? </li></ul>