1. Human population and the environment
Group of individuals belonging to the same species, which live in a given area at a
No of individuals of the population per unit area or per unit volume.
2. Causes of rapid population growth
• due to decrease in death rate and increase in birth rate.
• Availability of antibiotics, immunization, increased food production, clean water
and air decreases the famine-related deaths.
• In agricultural based countries, children are required to help parents in the field
that is why population increases in the developing countries.
Characteristics of population growth
• Exponential growth = 10, 102
• Doubling time = 70/r (annual growth rate), ex 2% annual growth = pop. Will
double in next 35 years
• Infant mortality rate = % of infants died in one year
• Total fertility rate = average no of children delivered by a women in her life
• Replacement level = 2 parents bearing 2 child are replaced by their off spring
• Male/female ratio = should be balanced, china G:B = 100 : 140
• Demographic transition = death rate & birth rate fall due to improvd living
condn. Result in low population growth called as Demographic transition.
3. Variation of population based on age structure
Pre-productive population (0-14 years)
Reproductive population (15 – 44 years)
Post reproductive population (above 45 years)
Pyramid shaped variation of population (increases)
Ex: India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria etc.
4. Bell Shaped variation of population (Stable)
Ex France, USA, UK, Canada etc.
Pre-Productive & reproductive age gp population are equal. So population growth
Urn Shaped Variation of Population (Decreases)
Ex; Germany, italy, Sweden, Japan etc.,
Pre-productive age gp population <
that the reproductive age gp.
Decrease of population growth
6. Forests, grass lands are under threat.
Increase disease, economic inequity and communal war
Over crowding leads to development of slums.
Lack of basic amenities like water supply and sanitation,
education, health etc.
Unemployment and low living standard of people
7. • 5.3 FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMME
– Reduce infant mortality rate.
– Encourage late marriages.
– Improve women’s health.
– Control of communal diseases.