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ADRs
Types, Reporting, Evaluation,
Monitoring, Preventing & Management
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 1
Definition
• 'A response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which
occurs at doses normally used in man for the...
BASED ON INCIDENCE Classification
• VERY COMMON
• COMMON
• UNCOMMON
• RARE
• VERY RARE
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 3
• VERY COMMON ADR- incidence >10% (1 in 10 ppl)
• Ex- drowsiness associated with carbamazepine
• COMMON ADR- incidence is ...
• UNCOMMON ADR- incidence 0.1-1.0 % (1-1000 to 1-100)
• Ex- diarrhea associated with carbamazepine
• RARE ADR- incidence 0...
BASED ON SEVERITY / INTENSITY
Classification
• MILD (minor)
• MODERATE
• SEVERE (major)
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 6
• MILD (minor)- does not required any therapy / may not notice
• MODERATE – required change in drug therapy
• SEVER (major...
TRADITIONALLY Classification
• TYPE-A (Augmented)
• TYPE-B (Bizarre)
• TYPE-C (continuous)
• TYPE-D (delayed)
• TYPE-E (En...
TYPE-A (Augmented)
• Commonest (up to 70%) – Dose dependent, severity increases with dose.
• Preventable in most part by s...
TYPE-B (Bizarre)
• Rare, idiosyncratic, genetically determined, unpredictable, mechanisms are
unknown, serious, can be fat...
TYPE-C (continuous)
• Occurs as a result of continuous drug use.
• May be irreversible, unexpected, unpredictable,
• e.g.,...
TYPE-D (delayed)
• Delayed occurrence of ADRs, even after the cessation of treatment.
• e.g., corneal opacities after thio...
TYPE-E (End of Dose)
• Withdrawal reactions. Occurs typically with the depressant drugs.
• e.g., hypertension and restless...
TYPE-F (Failure of therapy)
• Results from the ineffective treatment (previously excluded from analysis
according to WHO d...
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 15
How to recognize ADRs
• Ensure, medicine received & actually taken by the patient at the dose advised
• Verify the onset o...
• WHAT TO REPORT ?
• WHO SHOULD REPORT
• WHEN TO REPORT
• HOW TO REPORT
• WHERE TO REPORT
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 17
?
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 18
WHAT TO REPORT ?
• Any undesirable adverse event suspected to be associated with use of drug.
• Include - All ADRs as a re...
Information required for ADR case reporting
• Patient information-
- patient identifier
- age at time of event or date of ...
• Adverse event or product problem-
-description of event or problem
- date of event
- date of this report
- relevant test...
Suspected medication (s)
- name (INN and brand name)
- dose, frequency & route used
- therapy date
- diagnosis for use
- e...
• Reporter-
• - name, address and telephone number
- speciality and occupation
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 23
WHO SHOULD REPORT
• doctors, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, assistant medical officers,
clinical officers, pharmaceutical ...
WHEN TO REPORT
• Any suspected ADR should be reported as soon as possible.
• Delay in reporting will make reporting inaccu...
HOW TO REPORT
• CDSCO suspected ADR Reporting Form
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 26
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 27
WHERE TO REPORT
• Please return the completed form to the nearest Adverse drug reaction
Monitoring Centre (AMC) or to Nati...
FlowofReporting
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 29
What happens to the submitted
information:
• Information provided in this form is handled in strict confidence.
• The caus...
• The reports are periodically reviewed by the National Coordinating Centre
(PvPI). The information generated on the basis...
Types of Reporting
• INTERNAL REPORTING
• SPONTANEOUS REPORTING
• VOLUNTARY REPORTING
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 32
MONITORING OF ADR
• WHO-UMC
• NARANJO’S CAUSALITY ASSESSMENT
• HARTWIG SACLE- ADR severity assessment scale
Dr.C.SUHAS RED...
ADR severity assessment scale
Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 34
PREVENTION OF ADR
• Anticipation by patient monitoring
Ex- anemia- due to deficiency of G6PD, check the condition
• Antici...
• Monitoring of pharmacological activity (extensive of P’cology activity)
Ex-diuretics- to promote salt & water loss , but...
• Minimizing of non-preventable- Idiosyncratic / hypersensitivity not
preventable.
• Can be done by carful observation / m...
Management of the adverse reaction
• Confirmation of the ADRs: indicate what assisted in confirming the suspected
adverse ...
• 2. Mention the criteria for regarding the reaction as serious
• 3. Mention any treatment given to the patient after expe...
REFERENCE
• CLINICAL PHARMACY TEXT BOOK - G.PARTHASARATHI
• CLINICAL PHARMACY TEXT BOOK - RAVI KUMAR
• WHO website
• Adver...
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Advesre drug reaction- Types, Reporting, Evaluation, Monitoring, Preventing & Management

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Advesre drug reaction- Types, Reporting, Evaluation, Monitoring, Preventing & Management

  1. 1. ADRs Types, Reporting, Evaluation, Monitoring, Preventing & Management Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 1
  2. 2. Definition • 'A response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modifications of physiological function'. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 2
  3. 3. BASED ON INCIDENCE Classification • VERY COMMON • COMMON • UNCOMMON • RARE • VERY RARE Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 3
  4. 4. • VERY COMMON ADR- incidence >10% (1 in 10 ppl) • Ex- drowsiness associated with carbamazepine • COMMON ADR- incidence is 1-10 to 1-100 • Ex-fluid retention with carbamazepine Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 4
  5. 5. • UNCOMMON ADR- incidence 0.1-1.0 % (1-1000 to 1-100) • Ex- diarrhea associated with carbamazepine • RARE ADR- incidence 0.01-0.1 % (1-10000 to 1-1000) • Ex- depression associated with carbamazepine • VERY RARE- incidence <0.01% (1-10000) • EX-arrhythmia associated with carbamazepine Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 5
  6. 6. BASED ON SEVERITY / INTENSITY Classification • MILD (minor) • MODERATE • SEVERE (major) Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 6
  7. 7. • MILD (minor)- does not required any therapy / may not notice • MODERATE – required change in drug therapy • SEVER (major) – capable of damaging any organ / life threatening, hospitalization, disability (significant, persistent or permanent, congenital anomaly, required intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 7
  8. 8. TRADITIONALLY Classification • TYPE-A (Augmented) • TYPE-B (Bizarre) • TYPE-C (continuous) • TYPE-D (delayed) • TYPE-E (End of Dose) • TYPE-F (Failure of therapy) Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 8
  9. 9. TYPE-A (Augmented) • Commonest (up to 70%) – Dose dependent, severity increases with dose. • Preventable in most part by slow introduction of low dosages. • Predictable by the pharmacological mechanisms, • e.g., hypotension by beta-blockers, • hypoglycaemia caused by insulins or oral hypoglycaemics, • NSAID induced gastric ulcers. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 9
  10. 10. TYPE-B (Bizarre) • Rare, idiosyncratic, genetically determined, unpredictable, mechanisms are unknown, serious, can be fatal; unrelated to the dose, • e.g. ,hepatitis caused by halothane, • aplastic anaemia caused by chloramphenicol, • neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by some anaesthetics and antipsychotics. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 10
  11. 11. TYPE-C (continuous) • Occurs as a result of continuous drug use. • May be irreversible, unexpected, unpredictable, • e.g., tardive dyskinesias by antipsychotics, • dementia by anticholinergic medications. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 11
  12. 12. TYPE-D (delayed) • Delayed occurrence of ADRs, even after the cessation of treatment. • e.g., corneal opacities after thioridazine, • ophthalmopathy after chloroquine. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 12
  13. 13. TYPE-E (End of Dose) • Withdrawal reactions. Occurs typically with the depressant drugs. • e.g., hypertension and restlessness in opiate abstainer, • seizures on alcohol or benzodiazepines withdrawal; • first dose hypotension caused by alpha-blockers (Prazosin) or ACE inhibitors. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 13
  14. 14. TYPE-F (Failure of therapy) • Results from the ineffective treatment (previously excluded from analysis according to WHO definition), • e.g., accelerated hypertension because of inefficient control. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 14
  15. 15. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 15
  16. 16. How to recognize ADRs • Ensure, medicine received & actually taken by the patient at the dose advised • Verify the onset of suspected ADR is after taking the drug • Determine the time interval between drug taken – onset of event • Evaluate the suspected ADR after discontinuing the drug / reduced dose, monitor status. • Analyse the alternate cause (other than the drug) • Use relevant literature & experienced physician opinion & information PV ceneter • Report the ADR Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 16
  17. 17. • WHAT TO REPORT ? • WHO SHOULD REPORT • WHEN TO REPORT • HOW TO REPORT • WHERE TO REPORT Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 17
  18. 18. ? Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 18
  19. 19. WHAT TO REPORT ? • Any undesirable adverse event suspected to be associated with use of drug. • Include - All ADRs as a result of prescription and non-prescription • All ADRs – irrespective of the used (acc with PI provided by company) • Unexpected reactions - regardless of their nature or severity • ADRs-in special field – drug abuse, drug use – pregnancy / lactation • ADRs occurring from overdose or medication error Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 19
  20. 20. Information required for ADR case reporting • Patient information- - patient identifier - age at time of event or date of birth - gender - weight Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 20
  21. 21. • Adverse event or product problem- -description of event or problem - date of event - date of this report - relevant tests/laboratory data (if available) - other relevant patient information/history - outcomes attributed to adverse even Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 21
  22. 22. Suspected medication (s) - name (INN and brand name) - dose, frequency & route used - therapy date - diagnosis for use - event abated after use stopped or dose reduced - batch number - expiration date - event reappeared after reintroduction of the treatment - concomitant medical products and therapy dates Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 22
  23. 23. • Reporter- • - name, address and telephone number - speciality and occupation Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 23
  24. 24. WHO SHOULD REPORT • doctors, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, assistant medical officers, clinical officers, pharmaceutical technicians, pharmaceutical assistants, traditional medicine practitioners and others health care providers. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 24
  25. 25. WHEN TO REPORT • Any suspected ADR should be reported as soon as possible. • Delay in reporting will make reporting inaccurate and unreliable. • If possible, report while the patient is still in the health facility this gives a chance to reporter to clear any ambiguity by re-questioning or examining the patient Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 25
  26. 26. HOW TO REPORT • CDSCO suspected ADR Reporting Form Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 26
  27. 27. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 27
  28. 28. WHERE TO REPORT • Please return the completed form to the nearest Adverse drug reaction Monitoring Centre (AMC) or to National Coordinating Centre • A list of nationwide AMCs is available at: • http://cdsco.nic.in/pharmacovigilance.htm Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 28
  29. 29. FlowofReporting Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 29
  30. 30. What happens to the submitted information: • Information provided in this form is handled in strict confidence. • The causality assessment is carried out at (AMCs) by using WHO-UMC. • The analyzed forms are forwarded to the National Coordinating Centre through the ADR database. • Finally the data is analyzed and forwarded to the Global Pharmacovigilance Database managed by WHO Uppsala Monitoring Center in Sweden. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 30
  31. 31. • The reports are periodically reviewed by the National Coordinating Centre (PvPI). The information generated on the basis of these reports helps in continuous assessment of the benefit-risk ratio of medicines. • The information is submitted to the Steering Committee of PvPI constituted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The Committee is entrusted with the responsibility to review the data and suggest any interventions that may be required. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 31
  32. 32. Types of Reporting • INTERNAL REPORTING • SPONTANEOUS REPORTING • VOLUNTARY REPORTING Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 32
  33. 33. MONITORING OF ADR • WHO-UMC • NARANJO’S CAUSALITY ASSESSMENT • HARTWIG SACLE- ADR severity assessment scale Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 33
  34. 34. ADR severity assessment scale Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 34
  35. 35. PREVENTION OF ADR • Anticipation by patient monitoring Ex- anemia- due to deficiency of G6PD, check the condition • Anticipation of dosage reeducation Ex- impaired renal / liver function – dosage should reduce • Monitoring the serum levels(drug) Ex- theophylline, aminoglycosides Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 35
  36. 36. • Monitoring of pharmacological activity (extensive of P’cology activity) Ex-diuretics- to promote salt & water loss , but causes electrolyte depletion & dehydration. So therapeutic end point not exceeded. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 36
  37. 37. • Minimizing of non-preventable- Idiosyncratic / hypersensitivity not preventable. • Can be done by carful observation / monitoring of patient Ex- patient with meningitis – should be with penicillin (even if pt is allergic). Chemotherapy – nausea Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 37
  38. 38. Management of the adverse reaction • Confirmation of the ADRs: indicate what assisted in confirming the suspected adverse reactions. For example: • i. Drug reactions confirmed by disappearance of the reaction after stopping administration of the drug or reducing the doses. • ii. Recovery on withdrawal of suspected drug(s) if no other drug is withdrawn and no therapy given. • iii. Recovery follows treatment of the reaction in addition to withdrawal of drug. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 38
  39. 39. • 2. Mention the criteria for regarding the reaction as serious • 3. Mention any treatment given to the patient after experiencing the ADRs. • 4. Outcome: indicate the outcome of the adverse reaction by marking X in the appropriate box with dates in case of fatal outcome. Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 39
  40. 40. REFERENCE • CLINICAL PHARMACY TEXT BOOK - G.PARTHASARATHI • CLINICAL PHARMACY TEXT BOOK - RAVI KUMAR • WHO website • Adverse drug reaction-causality assessment-ijrpc 2011, 1(3). Dr.C.SUHAS REDDY 40

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