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Elements of interior design



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Elements of interior design, history,importance, main elements of interior design- line, shape, space, form,texture, colour in detail, their uses and charecteristics in interior design.method of achieving nice composition using these elements vs nice examples and illustration.

Elements of interior design

  1. 1. Elements of interior design
  2. 2. sr 2 Submitted by- Sumit Ranjan College of Architecture, Bhaddal 6th sem AR/12/834 Sumbitted to- Ar RimaljeetKaur
  3. 3. sr 3 Interior design is "the art or process of designing the interior decoration of a room or building“  An interior designer is someone who coordinates and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, communicating with the stakeholders of a project and the managementand execution of the design.
  4. 4. sr 4  In the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building.  The profession of interior design has been a consequence of the developmentof society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes.  In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers.  This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology.  The interior design profession became more established after World War II.
  5. 5. sr 5  The elements of design are the fundamental building blocks of any composition.  These pieces work together to form a unified composition, and when utilized successfully, create a strong, dynamic visual layout.  The designer uses these elements as tools that control how a message is delivered to an audience.  These principles can be applied to fine art, photography and graphic design.
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  7. 7. sr 7 Line Space Shape Form Texture Color line colour form texture space shapes
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  9. 9.  One of most important element of design, line defines a subjectʼs form or shape on a flat, two- dimensional surface.  Lines can be thick or thin, smooth or jagged, rigid and mechanical or organic and hand drawn.  When discussing line as it applies to interior design, we mean the lines created by the furnishings and architecture of a room.  Line sets form and shape.  Line is responsible for harmony, contrast and unity in interior design.  Line can be used to show movement and guides the eye throughout a room.  Line can be used to show mood.  Lines can be used to convey a sense of strength, serenity, gracefulness, or action.  Combining lines and placing them in a design in certain ways can create specific effects and feelings.  The use of line can also have an effect on how space is perceived.  Different types of lines have different effects on design.
  10. 10. sr 10 a mark, or stroke that is longer then it is wide. It is the path of a point moving in space. Objects and things are perceived by the line that describes them. Characteristics of line include: Width - thick, thin, tapering, uneven Length - long, short, continuous, broken Direction - horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving, perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zig-zag Focus - sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy Feeling - sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth ... can you think of others?
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  12. 12. sr 12 The difference in line qualityhave created works with very different impact. How you use line is very important while creating some artwork.
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  14. 14. sr 14 Vertical lines Vertical lines lead the eye up,  adding height  formality  growth  spirituality  grandeur  strength to a design. Can be seen in: Tall furniture Columns Pillars Striped wallpaper Long narrow draperies This drawing room displays the use of vertical line. The example that stands out the most in this image is the glass window. Vertical line is also shown in the columns.
  15. 15. sr 15 The back wall, glass window, furniture etc. give rise to verticality
  16. 16. sr 16 Vertical railing showingvertical lines. These supposeto increase the height.
  17. 17. sr 17 Vertical lines can make rooms seem more spacious than they actually are and ceilings appear higher.
  18. 18. sr 18 Horizontal lines Horizontal lines lead the eye to the left or right, suggesting informality  calm  peace  gentleness  gravity  restfulness. Can be seen in: Long, low roofs Long, low furniture pieces such as sofas and chests
  19. 19. sr 19 Horizontal lines can make buildings, rooms, and furniture seem wider and shorter.
  20. 20. sr 20 Horizontal lines can make buildings, rooms, and furniture seem wider and shorter.
  21. 21. sr 21 Horizontal lines depicts calm, peace, and relaxation
  22. 22. sr 22 Diagonal lines Diagonal lines suggest  action,  activity,  movement  excitement  Creates a sense of speed Can be seen in: Staircases Cathedral ceilings Gable Roofs
  23. 23. sr 23 Diagonallines can be overpowering and tiring, so they should be used sparingly in design
  24. 24. sr 24 Diagonal lines creating action and excitement.
  25. 25. sr 25 Depicting a sense of action
  26. 26. sr 26 Curved lines Too manycurved lines create  a busy look  Represent freedom  Natural  Flow  Appearance of softness  A soothing feeling. Can be seen in: Doorway arches Ruffled curtains Curved furniture Rounded accessories Staircases
  27. 27. sr 27 Curved lines create naturalflow and freedom. The dynamic nature of diagonal lines creates drama and movement in room with a staircase
  28. 28. sr 28 Curved line represent freedom Appearance of softness
  29. 29. sr 29 Curved lines add a softening, graceful effect to designs.
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  31. 31. sr 31 Directional/jagged lines Can be perceived as  forceful  chaotic  sharp  threatening Thin lines Can be experienced by  Unstable  weak Thick lines Can be experienced by  Rigid  Dependent  dominating
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  34. 34. sr 34  Space, in two-dimensional design, is essentially flat.  It has height and width, but no depth.  There are certain visual cues, however, that can create the illusion of space in the mind of the viewer.  By using those cues, artists and designers can create images that are interpreted as three-dimensional. Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It may have two dimensions (length and width) such as a floor, or it may have three dimensions (length, width, and height), such as a room or dwelling. It refers to the area that a shape or form occupies. When space changes gradually, it is more pleasing than when it changes abruptly. When space changes suddenly, the eye shifts from one view to the other without making a smooth transition.
  35. 35. sr 35 Space can be defined as positive or negative.  Positive space is the filled space, the object(s) or element(s) in the design.  Negative space is the empty space, or the open space between design elements or objects, such as a background.
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  37. 37. sr 37 Any space, no mater what size or shape, can be divided into distinct parts.
  38. 38. sr 38 Designers can create the illusion of physical space and spatial relationships through:  Linear Perspective  Size & Vertical Location  Overlapping  Detail (Aerial or Atmospheric Perspective)
  39. 39. sr 39 Shapes that contrast negative and positive space can create the illusion of perspective. •Linear perspective in a photorealistic image. Linear perspective is based on the visual phenomenon that as parallel lines (such as railroad tracks) recede into space, they appear to converge at a distant point. Linear perspective not only evokes a feeling of great depth, but it also creates a strong focal point at the place where the lines converge.
  40. 40. sr 40 Size is one of the easiest ways to create the illusion of space. A larger image will appear closer than a smaller one because we observed (very early in life) that objects appear to become smaller as they get farther away.
  41. 41. sr 41 Overlapping is another easy way to suggest depth in an image. When objects overlap each other, the viewer perceives the one that is covering parts of other to be in front and the one that is covered to be in the back.
  42. 42. sr 42  Atmospheric perspective uses value, contrast and color to give the illusion of space.  Atmospheric perspective is based on the fact that the farther something is away from us, the more the atmospheric haze may obscure our view of it.  By lightening the value, lowering the value contrast, softening the edges, decreasing detail and muting the color, you can mimic the effect of atmospheric haze and create the illusion of increasing distance.  Increasing the bluish cast of an image also creates a sense of depth because cool colors recede and warm colors come forward.
  43. 43. sr 43 Compositional location refers to where a form is positioned vertically in the image. The bottom is seen as the foreground, the part of the image that is nearest the viewer and the top as the background, the part farthest from the viewer. The higher an object is place in the image, the farther back it is perceived to be.
  44. 44. sr 44 Too little space can create a feeling of being exposed.
  45. 45. sr 45 Very large rooms designed for many people can produce a lonely feeling when a person is alone
  46. 46. sr 46 Space is affected by the number and size of objects in it.
  47. 47. sr 47 Many objects scattered throughout a room will most likely destroy the design effect because the space will have no apparentorganizationor unity.
  48. 48. sr 48 Objects grouped into large unitswill create a more ordered space.
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  50. 50. sr 50 A shape is defined as  a two or more dimensional area.  All objects are composed of shapes and all other 'Elements of Design' are shapes in some way.  Shape is a flat image with two dimensions: Length and Width.  Any self-contained area with defined form or outline.  It refers to the nature of an enclosure, actual or implied, formed by a line/curve on a flat surface.  Examples of "shape" in this context include "a geometric shape" (eg square), "organic shape" (flower-shaped object).  Perceivable area.  Shapes can be created by enclosing line, or by color and value changes which define edges.
  51. 51. sr 51  Mechanical Shapes or Geometric Shapes are the shapes that can be drawn using a ruler or compass. Mechanical shapes, whether simple or complex, produce a feeling of control or order.[5]  Organic Shapes are freehand drawn shapes that are complex and normally found in nature. Organic shapes produce a natural feel.  Shape has size, which may connote significance or insignificance, strength or weakness.  A coloured shape on a white back-ground is itself a positive shape creating a negative shape (the background) Types of shapes
  52. 52. sr 52 Some geometrical shapes Shape creating pattern
  53. 53. sr 53 Color alone can create shapes.
  54. 54. sr 54 Connecting one continuousline to make a circle also creates shape
  55. 55. sr 55 These are perfect geometric shapes, which are very pleasing to the eye.
  56. 56. sr 56 Imperfect geometric shapes tend to create tension and attract greater interest.
  57. 57. sr 57  Shiny and reflect images- mirrors  Transparent and create visual effects - window glass  Textured and absorb light and sound - window treatments and carpeting  Hard or Soft  Plain or patterned  Colored light or dark Shape may be:
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  60. 60. sr 60  Form is the outlined edges of a three-dimensional object.  It has length, width, and depth (or height) as well as volume and mass.  Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height), side to side (width), and from back to front (depth).  Form is also defined by light and dark.  It can be defined by the presence of shadows on surfaces or faces of an object.  There are two types of form, geometric (man- made) and natural (organic form).  Form maybe created by the combining of two or more shapes.  It maybe enhanced by tone, texture and color.  It can be illustrated or constructed.  It has volume and mass.
  61. 61. sr 61  Organic - natural, living form.  Inorganicor geometric - man-made, non-living forms.  Open-forms - forms that can be looked into.  Closed-forms - self-contained.  GeometricShape - circle, square, rectangle, triangle, pentagon, octagon, other polygons.  GeometricForm - sphere, cube, pyramid, cone, cylinder.  Free-Form - any non-geometric shape: irregular, amorphic
  62. 62. sr 62  Inorganic or geometric - man-made, non-livingforms.
  63. 63. sr 63  Organic - natural,living form.
  64. 64. sr 64  Free-Form - any non- geometric shape: irregular, amorphic
  65. 65. sr 65 Related forms tend to look better together than unrelate d forms.
  66. 66. sr 66  Open-forms- forms that can be looked into.
  67. 67. sr 67 A room is more pleasing if the form of the dominatepiece is repeated in minorpieces and accessories in a room.
  68. 68. sr 68 Other examples of forms are found in furniture and architecture Thin, delicateforms appearfragile, even when built of sturdy materials Large, heavy formsprovide stability to a design scheme.
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  70. 70. sr 70  It is the surface quality or appearance of an object.  Texture can be used to enhance a room’s features or provide added dimension.  The element of texture is defined as “the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface.”  Texture is a surface’s tactile quality.  Tactile refers to the perception of touch. types  Visual texture is a quality of the surface that you can ‘see’, but not necessarily ‘felt’.  Actual texture is a qualityof the surface that you can both ‘see’ and ‘feel’.
  71. 71. sr 71 Texture may be :  rough/smooth,  wet/dry,  hard/soft,  shiny/matte(dull),  slick/sticky,  slippery/abrasive,  coarse/porous ...
  72. 72. sr 72 In design, texture appeals to sight as well as touch.
  73. 73. sr 73 A room with the same texture throughout is monotonous,but too many different textures can appeardisjointedand distracting.
  74. 74. sr 74 Most well-designed rooms have a dominatetexture with accents of contrastingtextures.
  75. 75. sr 75 Often patternsor colorsare used to create the illusionof texture.
  76. 76. sr 76 Smooth surfaces reflect more light than rough surfaces, making them look lighter and brighter. Rough surfaces absorb more light, making them look darker and less intense.
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  78. 78. sr 78  Color is the key element of interior design.  It is used to create aesthetically pleasing combinations and also works on a psychological level.  Each color has three characteristics: hue, value, and intensity.  It can give emphasis to create a hierarchy and the piece of art  Colour Saturation gives a color brightness or dullness.  Colour mayconnote emotion (excitement, rage, peace) and stimulatebrain activity (action, relaxation, concentration).  Light is additive – working towards white.  Paint or pigment is subtractive – working towards black.  Mixing red blue and yellow can create any pigmentcolour.  Tints are made when white is added to a pure hue to make light values.  A Shade is when black is added to a pure hue to make dark values.
  79. 79. sr 79  Hue is the name of a color.  Red, green and blue-violetare examples of hues.  A color may be lightenedor darkened, brightened or dulled, but the hue will remain the same.  Colouris said to have value,which refers to the lightnessor darkness of the colour(hue).  Tint (colour pluswhite) is high-valuecolour, whereas shade (colour plusblack) is low value colour
  80. 80. sr 80  Primary colors are hues from which all other colors can be made: red, yellow, blue. Secondary colors are made from mixing equal parts of the Primary colors: orange, green, violet.  Tertiary colors are those colors between Primary and Secondary colors: yellow-orange, red-orange, etc.  Complementary colors are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel: red-green, orange- blue, yellow-violet.  Analogous colors are colors that are adjacent (side by side) to each other on the color wheel.  Monochromaticcolors are variations in value of one color by adding either white to make tints or black to make shades.
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  82. 82. sr 82 Intensity  refers to the brightness or dullness of a color.  Intensity is the brightness or dullness of a hue.  Adding some of its compliment can lower the intensity of a hue. The compliment of a hue is the color directly opposite it on a standard color wheel.  Examples of high intensity colors include hot pink and fire-engine red. Low intensity colors include rust and smoky blue.  A color is Transparent if the viewer can see clearly through it.  A color is translucent if it admits light but the image is diffused and can not be seen clearly.  A color is opaque if it can't be seen through. Colors have degrees of transparency Descriptors: brilliant,medium, dull.
  83. 83. sr 83  Value is the lightness or darkness of a hue.  The value of a hue can be made lighter by adding white. This produces a tint.  Pink is a tint of red, made by adding white to red.  A hue can be made darker by adding black. This produces a shade.  Maroon is a shade of red. Google knows how to apply colour in a way that not only enforces their brand, but also to create a fun and interesting working environment that benefits their employees.
  84. 84. sr 84 The Red Prime Steak restaurant takes advantage of colour psychology by using the colour red to increase appetites. The offices of Octavian Advisors utilizes a monochromatic colour scheme, except for the bright green elevator entrances. This is an effective way of using colour for way finding.
  85. 85. sr 85 This carpet adds a pop a colour and also provides a sense of direction within the space Colour can be applied to surfaces or as light to create interested and dynamic spaces.
  86. 86. sr 86 Colorschemes look best when one color dominates. Dominatecolor should cover about two-thirds of the room area.
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  88. 88. sr 88 Tintsand tones add interests and breaks monotony.
  89. 89. sr 89 Thank you! Sumit Ranjan Architecture student at College of Architecture, Bhaddal, Ropar ,