4. 1. FORAGING SOCIETIES OR HUNTER
• Foraging societies consisted of people who had no consistently controlled
source of food. They hunted and gathered; thus they remained at the mercy
• Since men and women both spent their time searching for food, there was
probably gender equality.
5. 2. PASTORAL SOCIETIES
• A pastoral society is a social group, where people lived in a certain place and
started to pasture animals for transportation and permanent food.
• Pastoral societies are found primarily in eastern Africa, the Middle East,
6. 3. Horticultural society
• A horticultural society is an organization devoted to the study and culture
of cultivated plants. Such organizations may be local, regional, national, or
• This type of societies cultivated vegetables, fruits and plants.
7. 4. Agricultural society
• An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose
economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
• Its key characteristic is that the economy, wealth and society in general is
centred primarily on agriculture.
8. 5. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
• In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology
and machinery to enable mass production, supporting a large population with
a high capacity for division of labor.
9. 6. POST INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
• In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development
when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector
of the economy.
11. • The word "community" is derived from Latin word communitas means
"common, public, shared by all or many".
A community is a group of people living in the same place or having a
particular characteristic in common such as norms, religion, values,
• “Community is a set of interrelationships among social institutions
in a locality” .
Bell and Newby
• “Community refers to a structure of relationships through which a
localized population provides its daily requirements”.
14. 1. A group of people
• The most basic or fundamental aspect of a community is a group of
• A collection of people may be tiny or huge, but whenever the term
“community” is used, it always refers to a group of people. Because we can’t
conceive of a community without a gathering of persons who live together
and share a common life.
• When several persons reside together and share similar interests and views,
then a community emerges.
15. 2. A definite locality
• It’s the next essential feature of a community.
• A community is defined by its location.
• A single individual can’t create a community on their own. Only when
people reside in a particular territory do they form a community.
16. 3. Community Sentiment
• It is another key feature of community.
• Community feeling refers to an intense sense of wonder among the
members or a sensation of belonging together.
• A feeling of cooperation, togetherness, and togetherness is born as a result
of people living in the same area for an extended period of time.
18. 5. Permanence
• A community is always a permanent organization.
• It refers to people who live in a particular area permanently.
19. 6. Similarity
• In a number of ways, members of a community are similar.
• Similarities in language, culture, traditions, and customs are among the
many similarities seen among the members.
20. 7.Total organized social life
• A community is defined by complete social organization.
• It implies that a community incorporates all elements of society. As a result,
a community is a miniature society.
22. 1. Rural Community
• Rural community is a natural phenomenon.
• It is present in every society of the world having distinct culture and pattern
of social life.
• People of this community mostly have Face to face ‘interaction with high
degree of homogeneity in their identities.
• Basic urban facilities like school, hospital, market, municipal office, police
station etc. are usually missing in this community.
23. 2. Urban Community
• Urban community is the opposite of rural community.
• The urban people lifestyle are highly impersonal with each other along high
degree of complexity and heterogeneity in their living style and identities.
• It is actually a product of rational choice. Modern civic facilities are usually
24. 3. Sub-urban Community
• A suburban community is a residential area that exists at the outskirts of an
urban community. Such a community is a low-density area with the
commuting distance of a city.
• Sometimes it could be difficult to distinguish between urban and suburban
communities due to the similarities that exist between them.
• Moreover, the cost of housing here is quite low compared to an urban