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PREPARED BY :- AMIT KUMAR &
SUMIT KUMAR
HIMACHAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL
SCIENCES PAONTA SAHIB (H.P.)
INTRODUCTION

 It is essential that there should
be proper moisture control, good
accessibility and visibility as
well as ...
Method to obtain isolated environment

  Isolation shall be studied under two heads:-
         a)Isolation from moisture
 ...
ISOLATION FROM MOISTURE
          A)Direct methods
          B)Indirect methods


A)Direct methods:-
1.rubber dam.
2.cotto...
B)Indirect methods:-
1.Comfortable position of patient and relaxed
  surroundings.
2.Local anesthesia
3.Drugs :-anti-sialo...
ISOLATION FROM SOFT TISSUES
1.Retraction of cheeks lips and tongue:-
• Rubber dam
• Cotton rolls and holder
• Tongue guard...
Rubber dam provides the best possible isolation
   by far.
In 1864 S.C.Barnum a New York city dentist
   introduced the ru...
ADVANTAGES
 • Provision of dry clean operating field.
 • Improvement of access & visibility by
   eliminating tongue, lip,...
DISADVANTAGES
   • Usage is low amongst private
     practitioners.
   • Time consuming& patient’s objection.
   • Cannot ...
ARMAMENTARIUM
  1. Rubber dam sheets
  2. Rubber dam clamps
  3. Rubber dam holders(frame)
  4. Rubber dam retainer forcep...
1.Rubberdam sheet
 • Available as rolls or sheets
 • Size - 5     or 6     square.
 • Thickness - 0.006”to 0.01”
     (thi...
2. Rubber dam clamps
    • Used to secure the dam
      to the teeth that are to
      be    isolated    &     to
      mi...
TYPES-1) Winged retainers
  • Retainers with wing like
    projections on the outer aspect
    of their jaws.
  • Provide ...
2).Wingless retainers

      Having no wings. The
      retainer is first placed on
      the tooth and the dam
      then...
3. Rubber dam holder (frame)
    Used to maintain the
      borders of the rubber
      dam in position.
    Types:
      ...
b). Ash pattern -
  most suitable for
  children.




C). Swenska N-Ǿ
  frames are
  suitable for taking
  radiographs wit...
4. Rubber dam retainer forceps

   Used for placement and removal
     of retainer from the tooth.



                    ...
ASH type
Beaks of some patterns of forceps
 Grooves on their outer surfaces to ensure positive
location of the clamp during expansi...
5. Rubber dam punch

  Used for making holes in the
    dam
  Parts a). Rotating metal
    disc bearing 5 to 6 holes of
  ...
6. Rubber dam template (stamp)

 Both have positions of
 the teeth marked on
 them and are used to
 transfer them to the
 ...
7. Dental floss
      Tied around the retainer
before carried to the oral cavity to
 prevent accidental aspiration of
clam...
PREPARATION OF THE PATIENT FOR
         RUBBER DAM.
The dam can be presented as
a‘raincoat’ that keeps the
  tooth dry and...
Step1:- Testing and lubricating the proximal
                  contacts

                      Dental floss is used to
   ...
Step 2 :- Punching the holes
Step 3:- Lubricating the dam:-
          The assistant lubricate both side of the
rubber dam in the area of punched hole u...
Step 4:- Selecting the retainer
                       The operator receive the rubber dam
  retainer forceps with the sel...
Step 5:- Testing the retainers stability and
retention:-
             Test the retainers stability and retention by
liftin...
Step 6:- Positioning the dam over the retainer
          With the fore finger , stretch the anchor hole of
 the dam over t...
Step 7 :- Apply the napkin
                  The operator gathers the dam in the
left hand while the assistance insert the...
Step 8 :- Positioning the napkin
           The assistant pulls the bunched dam through
the napkin and positioned it on th...
Step 9:- Attaching the frame
Step 10 :-Attaching the nap strap:-
             The assistant attaches the neck strap to the
left side of the frame and p...
Step 11 :-
   If there is a tooth distal to the retainer , the distal edge of
the posterior anchor hole should be passed t...
Step 12:-
   If the stability of the retainer is questionable ,low
fusing modeling compound can be used .
Step 13 :-
          The operator passes the septa through as
many contacts as possible without the use of dental
tape by ...
Step 14:-
    Use waxed dental tape to pass the dam through the
remaining contacts .tape is preferred over floss because
i...
Step15:-
    Invert the dam into the gingival sulcus to complete the
  seal around the tooth and prevent leakage .
Step 16:-
     With the edges of dam invert inter
proximally, complete the inversion facially and lingually
using an explo...
Step 17:-
     The use of a saliva ejector is optional because most
patient are able and usually prefer to swallow the
sal...
Step 18 :-
     The properly applied rubber dam is securely
positioned and comfortable to the patient . The patient
should...
Step 19 :-
   Check to see that the completed rubber dam
provides maximal access and visibility for the operative
procedur...
Step 20 :-
     For the proximal surface preparations many
operators consider the insertion of inter proximal wedges
as th...
REMOVAL OF RUBBER DAM

Step 1:-
Stretch the dam facially , pulling the septal rubber
  away from the gingival tissue an to...
Step 2:-
         Engage the retainer forceps . It is
unnecessary to remove any compound,if used
,because it will break fr...
Step3 :-
      After the retainer is removed ,release
the dam from the anterior anchor tooth and
remove the dam and frame ...
Step4 :-
      Wipe the patient lip with the napkin
 immediately after the dam and frame are removed
 .
Step 5 :-
        Rinse the teeth and the high volume
evaculator .
Step 6 :-
          Lay the teeth of rubber dam over a light
-coloured flat surface or hold it it up to the
operating ligh...
Rubber dam isolation
Rubber dam isolation
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Rubber dam isolation

  1. 1. PREPARED BY :- AMIT KUMAR & SUMIT KUMAR HIMACHAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL SCIENCES PAONTA SAHIB (H.P.)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION It is essential that there should be proper moisture control, good accessibility and visibility as well as adequate room for instrumentation around the working area . Such an environment is necessary for easy manipulation and insertion of restorative materials.
  3. 3. Method to obtain isolated environment Isolation shall be studied under two heads:- a)Isolation from moisture b)Isolation from soft tissues
  4. 4. ISOLATION FROM MOISTURE A)Direct methods B)Indirect methods A)Direct methods:- 1.rubber dam. 2.cotton rolls and cotton roll holder. 3.guage pieces . 4.Absorbent wafers. 5.Suction devices. 6.gingival retraction cord.
  5. 5. B)Indirect methods:- 1.Comfortable position of patient and relaxed surroundings. 2.Local anesthesia 3.Drugs :-anti-sialogaogues, anti anxiety ,muscle relaxants
  6. 6. ISOLATION FROM SOFT TISSUES 1.Retraction of cheeks lips and tongue:- • Rubber dam • Cotton rolls and holder • Tongue guards • Tongue depressor • Cheek and lip retractors • Mouth mirrors 2.Retraction of the gingiva :- • Physico mechanical means • Chemical means • Electrochemical means • surgical means
  7. 7. Rubber dam provides the best possible isolation by far. In 1864 S.C.Barnum a New York city dentist introduced the rubber dam into dentistry. It is used to define the operating field by isolating one or more teeth from oral environment. When excavating a deep carious lesions and risking pulpal exposure, use of the rubber dam is strongly recommended to prevent pulpal contamination from oral fluids. The dam eliminates saliva from the operating site and retract the soft tissue.
  8. 8. ADVANTAGES • Provision of dry clean operating field. • Improvement of access & visibility by eliminating tongue, lip, cheeks & saliva from the operating field . • Retraction & protection of soft tissues. • Prevention of inhalation & ingestion of foreign bodies. • Improved properties of dental materials • Aid to patient management. • Aid to cross-infection control by reducing aerosol spread of micro-organisms. • Minimization of mouth breathing during inhalation sedation procedures
  9. 9. DISADVANTAGES • Usage is low amongst private practitioners. • Time consuming& patient’s objection. • Cannot be used in case of extremely malpositioned teeth. • Children suffering from asthma ,some upper respiratory infections or mouth breathing problems.
  10. 10. ARMAMENTARIUM 1. Rubber dam sheets 2. Rubber dam clamps 3. Rubber dam holders(frame) 4. Rubber dam retainer forceps 5. Rubber dam punch 6. Rubber dam templates or stamps 7. Dental floss 8. Wedget 9. Wooden wedges, orthodontic elastics & commercially available latex cord.
  11. 11. 1.Rubberdam sheet • Available as rolls or sheets • Size - 5 or 6 square. • Thickness - 0.006”to 0.01” (thin, medium, heavy, extra heavy) • Colors - blue ,green colors preferred to provide good contrast with the surrounding and may be flavored for the children.
  12. 12. 2. Rubber dam clamps • Used to secure the dam to the teeth that are to be isolated & to minimally retract the gingival tissue. • Parts - 4 prongs that rest on the mesial & distal line angle of the tooth and 2 jaws connected by a bow.
  13. 13. TYPES-1) Winged retainers • Retainers with wing like projections on the outer aspect of their jaws. • Provide extra retraction of the rubber dam from the field of operation. • The wings are passed through the punched holes in the dam and the dam and the retainer placed together on the concerned tooth . After placement, the dam is slipped carefully over the wings onto the tooth
  14. 14. 2).Wingless retainers Having no wings. The retainer is first placed on the tooth and the dam then stretched over the clamp onto the tooth.
  15. 15. 3. Rubber dam holder (frame) Used to maintain the borders of the rubber dam in position. Types: a).Young’s holder-It is a U-shaped metal frame with small metal projections for securing borders of the rubber dam.
  16. 16. b). Ash pattern - most suitable for children. C). Swenska N-Ǿ frames are suitable for taking radiographs with the dam.
  17. 17. 4. Rubber dam retainer forceps Used for placement and removal of retainer from the tooth. STOKES BREWER
  18. 18. ASH type
  19. 19. Beaks of some patterns of forceps Grooves on their outer surfaces to ensure positive location of the clamp during expansion & placement.
  20. 20. 5. Rubber dam punch Used for making holes in the dam Parts a). Rotating metal disc bearing 5 to 6 holes of different sizes according to size of teeth. b). A sharp pointed plunger.
  21. 21. 6. Rubber dam template (stamp) Both have positions of the teeth marked on them and are used to transfer them to the rubber dam sheet for holes to be punched.
  22. 22. 7. Dental floss Tied around the retainer before carried to the oral cavity to prevent accidental aspiration of clamp. 8. Wedget An elastic used to secure the dam around the teeth farthest away from the clamp.
  23. 23. PREPARATION OF THE PATIENT FOR RUBBER DAM. The dam can be presented as a‘raincoat’ that keeps the tooth dry and held on by a button (clamp) & kept straight by a coat hanger (frame). Local analgesia should be administered where a clamp may impinge on the gingiva.
  24. 24. Step1:- Testing and lubricating the proximal contacts Dental floss is used to test the inter proximal contact and remove debris from the tooth to be isolated
  25. 25. Step 2 :- Punching the holes
  26. 26. Step 3:- Lubricating the dam:- The assistant lubricate both side of the rubber dam in the area of punched hole using a cotton role or gloved finger tip to apply the lubricant. The lips and corner of the mouth may be lubricated with petroleum jelly or cocoa butter to prevent irritation
  27. 27. Step 4:- Selecting the retainer The operator receive the rubber dam retainer forceps with the selected retainer and floss tie in position .The free end of tie should exit from cheek side of the retainer.
  28. 28. Step 5:- Testing the retainers stability and retention:- Test the retainers stability and retention by lifting gently in an occlusal direction with a finger tip under the bow of the retainer . An improperly fitting retainer rocks or easily dislodged .
  29. 29. Step 6:- Positioning the dam over the retainer With the fore finger , stretch the anchor hole of the dam over the retainer and then under the jaws.
  30. 30. Step 7 :- Apply the napkin The operator gathers the dam in the left hand while the assistance insert the finger and thumb of right hand through the napkin opening and grasp the bunched dam held by the operator.
  31. 31. Step 8 :- Positioning the napkin The assistant pulls the bunched dam through the napkin and positioned it on the patient face
  32. 32. Step 9:- Attaching the frame
  33. 33. Step 10 :-Attaching the nap strap:- The assistant attaches the neck strap to the left side of the frame and passes it behind the patients neck .the operator attaches it to the rt. Side of frame .
  34. 34. Step 11 :- If there is a tooth distal to the retainer , the distal edge of the posterior anchor hole should be passed through the contact to ensure a seal around the tooth .
  35. 35. Step 12:- If the stability of the retainer is questionable ,low fusing modeling compound can be used .
  36. 36. Step 13 :- The operator passes the septa through as many contacts as possible without the use of dental tape by stretching the septal dam forefingers . Each septum must not be allowed to bunch or fold .
  37. 37. Step 14:- Use waxed dental tape to pass the dam through the remaining contacts .tape is preferred over floss because its wider dimension more effectively carries the rubber septa through contacts.
  38. 38. Step15:- Invert the dam into the gingival sulcus to complete the seal around the tooth and prevent leakage .
  39. 39. Step 16:- With the edges of dam invert inter proximally, complete the inversion facially and lingually using an explorer while the assistant directs a stream of air onto the tooth.
  40. 40. Step 17:- The use of a saliva ejector is optional because most patient are able and usually prefer to swallow the saliva.
  41. 41. Step 18 :- The properly applied rubber dam is securely positioned and comfortable to the patient . The patient should be assured that the rubber dam does not prevent swallowing or closing the mouth when there is a pause in the procedure .
  42. 42. Step 19 :- Check to see that the completed rubber dam provides maximal access and visibility for the operative procedure.
  43. 43. Step 20 :- For the proximal surface preparations many operators consider the insertion of inter proximal wedges as the final step in rubber dam application . Wedges are generally round tooth pick ends about half inch in length that are snugly inserted into the gingival embrasures from the facial or lingual embrasure , which is greater , using no.110 pliers .
  44. 44. REMOVAL OF RUBBER DAM Step 1:- Stretch the dam facially , pulling the septal rubber away from the gingival tissue an tooth .protect the under lying tissue by placing the finger tip beneath the septum .
  45. 45. Step 2:- Engage the retainer forceps . It is unnecessary to remove any compound,if used ,because it will break free as the retainer is spread and lifted from the tooth .
  46. 46. Step3 :- After the retainer is removed ,release the dam from the anterior anchor tooth and remove the dam and frame simultaneously .
  47. 47. Step4 :- Wipe the patient lip with the napkin immediately after the dam and frame are removed .
  48. 48. Step 5 :- Rinse the teeth and the high volume evaculator .
  49. 49. Step 6 :- Lay the teeth of rubber dam over a light -coloured flat surface or hold it it up to the operating light to determine that no portion of the rubberdam ham has remained between or around the teeth . Such a remnant would cause gingival inflammation .
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