2. Dr. SURENDRAN PARAMBADATH
(M.Sc, M.Phil, M.Tech)
Formerly: Post Doctoral Research Associate,
Nano-Information Materials Research Laboratory,
Pusan National University, Busan-South Korea
Currently: Assistant Professor
Govt. Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
4. Organic Compound Inorganic Compound
1 Found in living organisms Found in non living matters-minerals
2 Besides carbon they are compounds of H, They are composed of one or more of any
O, N, S and P of the known elements.
3 They are covalent compounds They are electrovalent compounds
4 They are volatile and inflammable They are generally nonvolatile and non
5 Generally insoluble in water and soluble in Soluble in water and insoluble in non polar
non polar solvents, like benzene. solvents.
6 Reaction involving organic compounds are Reaction is fast
7 They exhibit isomerism Only coordination compounds exhibit
8 They are non conductors of electricity Many of them conduct electricity in
solution or fused form
9 Their number is very large Small in number
10 Generally, solids, liquids or gases Generally liquids or high melting solids.
5. The number of organic compounds is very large (~90%)
1. Catenation capacity
2. Strength of C-C bond
4. Capacity to combine with other non-metals like, H, O,
N, S, P, Cl, Br, I etc.
5. Possibility of multiple bonds and
6. The tendency of an element to form chain of identical atoms is
Due to catenation, carbon atoms can form straight chains, branched
chains or closed chain compounds.
C C C C C
C C C C C
C C C C C
C C C C
C C C C C
C C C C C
8. Compared to Si-Si, S-S, N-N or O-O bond C-C
bond is stronger and requires higher energy for
Hence chains with C-C bonds are stable.
9. Carbon atoms has four electrons in its valence shell and
can form four covalent bonds. This tetra-covalency or
quadri covalency of carbon gives rise to various
possibilities for formation of variety of structures.
10. Isomerism is the phenomenon in which one and the same molecular
formula represents more than one compound with different
Due to directional character of covalent bonds different spacial
arrangements and isomers are possible for compounds with the
same structural formula.
CH3 H3C CH3
12. Organic compounds with only single covalent bonds
between the carbon atoms are called saturated
In saturated compounds there will be no double or
triple bond between carbon atoms.
In unsaturated compound, double or triple bond
between carbon atoms.
13. 1. Unsaturated compounds decolorizes yellow colored bromine water.
2. Baeyrs test: Unsaturated compounds decolorize alkaline potassium
Contain only single covalent bonds Contain at least one covalent
between carbon atoms. double or triple bond between
Less reactive More reactive
Does not decolorize bromine water Decolorize bromine water
14. Open Chain (Acyclic or aliphatic) Compounds
These compounds contain an open chain of carbon
atoms which may be a straight or a branched chain.
Normal butane (n-butane)
Straight chain CH3-CH-CH3
15. Closed Chain (Cyclic or ring) Compounds
These compounds contain one or more rings of carbon atoms.
If the ring contains only carbon atom, it is called homocyclic
If it contains carbon and oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur it is called
heterocyclic ring system.
16. Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Benzene
Oxazole Furan Naphthalene
22. Class of Nature of the Formula of the Example
Organic functional functional
Compound group group
Alkenes Double bond C=C Ethene
Alkynes Triple bond -CC- Acetylene
Alcohols Hydroxy -O-H Methanol
Aldehydes Aldehydic -CHO Acetaldehyde
Acids Carboxyl -COOH Acetic acid
Ethers Ether group -O- Diethyl ether
Ketones Ketonic group -CO- Acetone
Amines Amino group -NH2 Methyl amine
Esters Ester group -COO- Methyl acetate
Two or more compounds having the same
molecular formula but different properties are
called isomers and the phenomenon is called
Structural: If the difference in properties of two isomers
is due to difference in their structure, it is called
Stereo: If the isomers have the same structure but
different configuration it is called stereoisomerism.