Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath

Surendran Parambadath
Surendran ParambadathAsst. Professor en Asst. Professor
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Dr. SURENDRAN PARAMBADATH
           (M.Sc, M.Phil, M.Tech)



  Formerly: Post Doctoral Research Associate,
Nano-Information Materials Research Laboratory,
 Pusan National University, Busan-South Korea

         Currently: Assistant Professor
   Govt. Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic Compound                              Inorganic Compound
1    Found in living organisms                     Found in non living matters-minerals

2    Besides carbon they are compounds of H,       They are composed of one or more of any
     O, N, S and P                                 of the known elements.
3    They are covalent compounds                   They are electrovalent compounds

4    They are volatile and inflammable             They are generally nonvolatile and non
                                                   inflammable
5    Generally insoluble in water and soluble in   Soluble in water and insoluble in non polar
     non polar solvents, like benzene.             solvents.
6    Reaction involving organic compounds are      Reaction is fast
     slow
7    They exhibit isomerism                        Only coordination compounds exhibit
                                                   isomerism
8    They are non conductors of electricity        Many of them conduct electricity in
                                                   solution or fused form
9    Their number is very large                    Small in number

10   Generally, solids, liquids or gases           Generally liquids or high melting solids.
The number of organic compounds is very large (~90%)

Because:
1. Catenation capacity
2. Strength of C-C bond
3. Tetra-covalency
4. Capacity to combine with other non-metals like, H, O,
   N, S, P, Cl, Br, I etc.
5. Possibility of multiple bonds and
6. Isomerism
The tendency of an element to form chain of identical atoms is
called catenation.
Due to catenation, carbon atoms can form straight chains, branched
chains or closed chain compounds.


           C       C       C       C       C


                                               C   C   C   C   C

                                               C   C   C   C   C
       C       C       C       C
                                               C   C   C   C   C
       C       C       C       C       C

                               C       C
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Compared to Si-Si, S-S, N-N or O-O bond C-C
bond is stronger and requires higher energy for
breaking.
Hence chains with C-C bonds are stable.
Carbon atoms has four electrons in its valence shell and
can form four covalent bonds. This tetra-covalency or
quadri covalency of carbon gives rise to various
possibilities for formation of variety of structures.



                    C     C

                    C     C
Isomerism is the phenomenon in which one and the same molecular
formula represents more than one compound with different
properties.
Due to directional character of covalent bonds different spacial
arrangements and isomers are possible for compounds with the
same structural formula.

                     CH3             H3C           CH3


          CH3
          Trans-2-butene               cis-2-butene
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic compounds with only single covalent bonds
between the carbon atoms are called saturated
compounds.
         CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
In saturated compounds there will be no double or
triple bond between carbon atoms.
In unsaturated compound, double or triple bond
between carbon atoms.
          CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH3
1. Unsaturated compounds decolorizes yellow colored bromine water.
2. Baeyrs test: Unsaturated compounds decolorize alkaline potassium
   permanganate solution.


Saturated                           Unsaturated

Contain only single covalent bonds Contain at least one covalent
between carbon atoms.              double or triple bond between
                                   carbon atoms.
Less reactive                       More reactive

Does not decolorize bromine water   Decolorize bromine water
Open Chain (Acyclic or aliphatic) Compounds

These compounds contain an open chain of carbon
atoms which may be a straight or a branched chain.

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
                                     CH3
Normal butane (n-butane)
    Straight chain             CH3-CH-CH3
                           Isobutane (iso-butane)
                              Branched chain
Closed Chain (Cyclic or ring) Compounds

These compounds contain one or more rings of carbon atoms.

If the ring contains only carbon atom, it is called homocyclic
ring system.

If it contains carbon and oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur it is called
heterocyclic ring system.

                                      Alicyclic
                Homocyclic
                                     Aromatic
Cyclopropane   Cyclobutane    Benzene



         N


     O            O
   Oxazole      Furan        Naphthalene
Organic
                    Compound




                                    Closed
      Open Chain
                                    Chain




Straight      Branched
                         Heterocyclic     Homocyclic
 Chain         Chain




                                   Alicyclic      Aromatic
Aromatic Compounds
Alicyclic
Heterocyclic
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Class of   Nature of the   Formula of the     Example
 Organic     functional       functional
Compound       group            group
 Alkenes    Double bond         C=C             Ethene

 Alkynes     Triple bond       -CC-           Acetylene

 Alcohols     Hydroxy          -O-H            Methanol

Aldehydes    Aldehydic         -CHO          Acetaldehyde
               Group
  Acids       Carboxyl        -COOH           Acetic acid

  Ethers     Ether group         -O-         Diethyl ether

 Ketones    Ketonic group       -CO-            Acetone

 Amines     Amino group         -NH2         Methyl amine

  Esters     Ester group       -COO-         Methyl acetate
Isomerism
Two or more compounds having the same
molecular formula but different properties are
called isomers and the phenomenon is called
isomerism.

Structural: If the difference in properties of two isomers
is due to difference in their structure, it is called
structural isomerism.

Stereo: If the isomers have the same structure but
different configuration it is called stereoisomerism.
Structural isomerism


 CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
                                      CH3
 Normal butane (n-butane)
                                CH3-CH-CH3
                            Isobutane (iso-butane)


  Molecular Formula: C4H10
CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
                                OH
Normal propyl alcohol
                          CH3-CH-CH3
                        Isopropyl alcohol



 Molecular Formula: C3H7-OH
Stereo isomerism

             CH3    H3C         CH3


    CH3

   Trans-2-butene    cis-2-butene
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
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Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath

  • 2. Dr. SURENDRAN PARAMBADATH (M.Sc, M.Phil, M.Tech) Formerly: Post Doctoral Research Associate, Nano-Information Materials Research Laboratory, Pusan National University, Busan-South Korea Currently: Assistant Professor Govt. Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
  • 4. Organic Compound Inorganic Compound 1 Found in living organisms Found in non living matters-minerals 2 Besides carbon they are compounds of H, They are composed of one or more of any O, N, S and P of the known elements. 3 They are covalent compounds They are electrovalent compounds 4 They are volatile and inflammable They are generally nonvolatile and non inflammable 5 Generally insoluble in water and soluble in Soluble in water and insoluble in non polar non polar solvents, like benzene. solvents. 6 Reaction involving organic compounds are Reaction is fast slow 7 They exhibit isomerism Only coordination compounds exhibit isomerism 8 They are non conductors of electricity Many of them conduct electricity in solution or fused form 9 Their number is very large Small in number 10 Generally, solids, liquids or gases Generally liquids or high melting solids.
  • 5. The number of organic compounds is very large (~90%) Because: 1. Catenation capacity 2. Strength of C-C bond 3. Tetra-covalency 4. Capacity to combine with other non-metals like, H, O, N, S, P, Cl, Br, I etc. 5. Possibility of multiple bonds and 6. Isomerism
  • 6. The tendency of an element to form chain of identical atoms is called catenation. Due to catenation, carbon atoms can form straight chains, branched chains or closed chain compounds. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
  • 8. Compared to Si-Si, S-S, N-N or O-O bond C-C bond is stronger and requires higher energy for breaking. Hence chains with C-C bonds are stable.
  • 9. Carbon atoms has four electrons in its valence shell and can form four covalent bonds. This tetra-covalency or quadri covalency of carbon gives rise to various possibilities for formation of variety of structures. C C C C
  • 10. Isomerism is the phenomenon in which one and the same molecular formula represents more than one compound with different properties. Due to directional character of covalent bonds different spacial arrangements and isomers are possible for compounds with the same structural formula. CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 Trans-2-butene cis-2-butene
  • 12. Organic compounds with only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 In saturated compounds there will be no double or triple bond between carbon atoms. In unsaturated compound, double or triple bond between carbon atoms. CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH3
  • 13. 1. Unsaturated compounds decolorizes yellow colored bromine water. 2. Baeyrs test: Unsaturated compounds decolorize alkaline potassium permanganate solution. Saturated Unsaturated Contain only single covalent bonds Contain at least one covalent between carbon atoms. double or triple bond between carbon atoms. Less reactive More reactive Does not decolorize bromine water Decolorize bromine water
  • 14. Open Chain (Acyclic or aliphatic) Compounds These compounds contain an open chain of carbon atoms which may be a straight or a branched chain. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3 Normal butane (n-butane) Straight chain CH3-CH-CH3 Isobutane (iso-butane) Branched chain
  • 15. Closed Chain (Cyclic or ring) Compounds These compounds contain one or more rings of carbon atoms. If the ring contains only carbon atom, it is called homocyclic ring system. If it contains carbon and oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur it is called heterocyclic ring system. Alicyclic Homocyclic Aromatic
  • 16. Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Benzene N O O Oxazole Furan Naphthalene
  • 17. Organic Compound Closed Open Chain Chain Straight Branched Heterocyclic Homocyclic Chain Chain Alicyclic Aromatic
  • 22. Class of Nature of the Formula of the Example Organic functional functional Compound group group Alkenes Double bond C=C Ethene Alkynes Triple bond -CC- Acetylene Alcohols Hydroxy -O-H Methanol Aldehydes Aldehydic -CHO Acetaldehyde Group Acids Carboxyl -COOH Acetic acid Ethers Ether group -O- Diethyl ether Ketones Ketonic group -CO- Acetone Amines Amino group -NH2 Methyl amine Esters Ester group -COO- Methyl acetate
  • 23. Isomerism Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different properties are called isomers and the phenomenon is called isomerism. Structural: If the difference in properties of two isomers is due to difference in their structure, it is called structural isomerism. Stereo: If the isomers have the same structure but different configuration it is called stereoisomerism.
  • 24. Structural isomerism CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3 Normal butane (n-butane) CH3-CH-CH3 Isobutane (iso-butane) Molecular Formula: C4H10
  • 25. CH3-CH2-CH2-OH OH Normal propyl alcohol CH3-CH-CH3 Isopropyl alcohol Molecular Formula: C3H7-OH
  • 26. Stereo isomerism CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 Trans-2-butene cis-2-butene