2. The country is endowed with vast resources in terms of ponds & tanks, rivers & canals,
reservoirs, lakes and other water bodies having immense scope for development of fisheries to
strengthen the food security, generate employment opportunities and earn foreign exchange
with the ultimate objective of improving the socio economic status of fishers and other people
engaged in the sector.
Fisheries is an important sector in India--it provides employment to millions of people and
contributes to food security of the country. With a coastline of over 8,000 km, an Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) of over 2 million sq. km, and with extensive freshwater resources,
fisheries play a vital role. Presently, fisheries and aquaculture contribute 1.07 per cent to the
national GDP, and 5.30 per cent to agriculture and allied activities, while the average annual
value of output during the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) was Rs31,682.50 crores.
Marine Fisheries contributes to food security and provides direct employment to over 1.5 mn.
fisher people besides others indirectly dependent on the sector.
In this direction, the Government of India formulated and launched the Centrally Sponsored
Scheme on “Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture” under macro-management
approach in States/UT’s during the 10th Plan. The total outlay approved for the entire 10th
Plan period is Rs 135.00 crore.
3. Indian Fisheries at a Glance
According to the CMFRI Census 2010, there are 3,288 marine fishing villages and 1,511 marine fish
landing centers in 9 maritime states and 2 union territories. The total marine fisher folk population
was about 4 million comprising in 864,550 families. Nearly 61% of the fishermen families were under
BPL category. The average family size was 4.63 and the overall sex ratio was 928 females per 1000
males. Almost 58% of the fisher folk were educated with different levels of education. About 38% marine
fisher folk were engaged in active fishing with 85% of them having full time engagement. About 63.6% of
the fisher folk were engaged in fishing and allied activities. Nearly 57% of the fisher folk engaged in fish
seed collection were females and 43% were males. Among the marine fishermen households nearly 76%
were Hindus, 15% were Christians and 9% were Muslims. The overall percentage of SC/ST among the
marine fishermen households was17%.
The Indian coastline can be delineated into 22 zones, based on the ecosystem structure and functions. The
Indian boat type ranges from the traditional catamarans, masula boats, plank-built boats, dug out
canoes, machwas, dhonis to the present day motorized fiber-glass boats, mechanized trawlers and
gillnetters. In the marine fisheries sector, there were 194,490 crafts in the fishery out of which 37% were
mechanized, 37% were motorized and 26% were non-motorized. Out of a total of 167,957 crafts fully
owned by fisher folk 53% were non-motorized, 24% were motorized and 23% were mechanized.
Among the mechanized crafts fully owned by fishermen, 29% were trawlers, 43% were gillnetters
and 19% were dolnetters.
India's marine capture fish production ,increased from 520,000 tonnes in 1950 to 3.15 million tonnes in
2007. The bulk of the catch comprises oil sardines, followed by penaeid and non-penaeid shrimp, Indian
mackerel, Bombay duck, croakers, smaller quantities of cephalopods, other sardines and threadfin
4. Inland Fisheries
India’s freshwater resources consists of rivers and canals (197,024 km),
reservoirs (3.15 million ha), ponds and tanks (235 million ha), oxbow lakes
and derelict waters (1.3 million ha), brackishwaters (1.24 million ha) and
estuaries (0.29 million ha). The inland capture fish production has increased from
192,000 tonnes in 1950 to 781,846 tonnes in 2007, the major species being
cyprinids, siluroids and murrels.
6. Management ?
Q. What is management?
Ans.: According to Mary Parker Follet, “management is the art of getting
things done through others.”
According to Henry Fayol, “to manage is to forecast and to plan, organize,
to command, to co-ordinate and to control”
Q. What is fisheries management?
Ans.: As per FAO, The integrated process of information gathering,
analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources
and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of
regulations rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the
continued activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the
resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.
Fisheries management in India, can be categorized into management of
fisheries in the EEZ and in the territorial waters. According to the
Constitution of India, the Central (Federal) government has jurisdiction
over the fisheries in the EEZ, while the State (Provincial) governments have
jurisdiction over fisheries in the territorial waters.
8. Fisheries Management in the EEZ
Some of the important central legal frameworks for fisheries management are:
Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy, 2004.
Guidelines for fishing operations in Indian EEZ.
Letter of intent for operation of fishing vessels
NFF comment on the Draft Marine fishing regulation and management bill, 2009.
The main objective of the policy is to ensure sustainable development of marine
fisheries with due concern for ecological integrity and biodiversity. The policy calls
for adopting fisheries management regimes such as - registration of fishing vessels,
observation of closed fishing seasons, proscription of destructive fishing methods,
implementation of mesh size regulations, reduction of by catch and discards and
establishing an effective monitoring, control and surveillance mechanism. The
guidelines specifically calls for compliance with CCRF and other international rules
and regulations in the management of fish stocks. Besides these, a uniform fishing
holiday is declared every year in the EEZ along east and west coasts. A national
committee has also been constituted to effectively implement the provisions of the
11. Five-Year Plan
From the very beginning of the plan era, the State has made efforts for
planned development to fulfill the aspiration of its people.
During First Five-year Plan, agricultural production, irrigation, power and
basic social services i.e. education, medical facilities, and drinking water were
the main focus areas.
Agriculture, Irrigation, Power and Social services continued to receive
attention during Second Five-year Plan. Rajasthan became a pioneering state
in introducing 3 tier Panchayati Raj System from 2nd October 1959.
12. Five Years Plan on Fisheries
Fisheries development and planning is undertaken through the Five-
Year Plans formulated by the government since 1951. The initial Five-
Year Plans, starting from the 1950s, focused more on the ‘development’
of the sector, and on increasing production, while it was only in the
Ninth and Tenth Five-Year Plan period that the need for conservation
and management was explicitly recognized.
13. Developmental Management
Several conservation measures have been initiated by the Ministry of
Environment and Forests (MoEF), especially towards safeguarding against
trade in endangered species (such as sea turtle, sea cucumbers, sea horse,
and several species of molluscs), protection of certain habitats such as
coral reefs, mangroves and breeding grounds of turtles, by designating
protected areas (such as national parks and sanctuaries).
14. Plan Period Approved
Outlay (Rs. In
Actual Exp. (Rs. In
I Plan 1951-56 64.5 54.15
II Plan 1956-61 105.27 102.74
III Plan 1961-66 236 212.7
Annual Plan 1966-67 48.87 48.9
Annual Plan 1967-68 43.65 39.88
Annual Plan 1968-69 40.08 47.98
IV Plan 1969-74 306.21 308.79
V Plan 1974-79 847.16 857.62
Annual Plan 1979-80 275 290.19
VI Plan 1980-85 2025 2120.45
VII Plan 1985-90 3000 3106.18
Annual Plan 1990-91 956 975.57
Annual Plan 1991-92 1170 1184.41
VIII Plan 1992-97 11500 11998.97
IX Plan 1997-2002 27650 19566.82
15. Important Physical Achievements
during Tenth Plan
Scheme Ind./Cum Unit
03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
a. Fish seed production Ind. Million No. Fry 185 303.01 255.17 299.34 300
b. Fish production Ind. 000 Tones 13.4 14.3 16.39 18.47 20
17. Fisheries management is undertaken mainly through licensing, prohibitions on certain
fishing gear, regulations on mesh size and establishment of closed seasons and areas, under
the Marine Fishing Regulation Act (MFRA).
Zones are demarcated by each State based on distance from the shoreline (from 5 km to 10
km) or on depth. These inshore zones, where trawling and other forms of mechanized
fishing is not permitted, are perhaps the most important space-based fisheries management
measure in place.
The closed season or ‘monsoon fishing ban’ is another important ‘temporo-spatial’
management measure implemented on both the east and west coasts of India for a period of
47 days and 65 days respectively, during, what is considered to be the spawning and
Besides these, there are several State-specific management measures, such
as fishing regulation measures adopted by Orissa to protect the turtle nesting and breeding
grounds, mandatory requirement to use turtle excluder devices.
18. Institutional Management
The responsibility for fisheries and marine habitat is spread across several
agencies and Ministries at the Central level.
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of
National Fisheries Development Board, Ministry of Agriculture
Coast Guard, Ministry of Defense
Ministry of Environment and Forests
Earth Commission, Ministry of Earth Sciences
Planning commission of India
Fish Farmers Development Authority
Marine Products Export Development Authority
19. Community-led initiatives
Community-level institutions also play an important role in fisheries governance along the coast. Examples
that have been documented include the Kadakodi system of northern Kerala, Pedhaloo in southern Orissa,
and the federated structure of the traditional Panchayat system of the Pattanavars community of Tamil
Nadu/Andhra Pradesh coast (Vivekanandan 2009, Koshy 2007). These traditional governance systems,
while important, are not officially recognized and/or involved in resources management.
However, a recent FAO United Nations Team for Tsunami Recovery Support (UNTRS) project titled
“Towards Developing a New Co-Management Regime in India”, along with the South Indian
Federation of Fishermen Societies (SIFFS), noted the potential of traditional Panchayat structure of the
Pattanavars along the Coromandel Coast in fisheries management (FAO 2008). Through the project,
resource management councils were formed with representatives from traditional Panchayats from
different villages and Fisheries Department officials of Tamil Nadu government, to explore options for
community based co-management arrangements at the local level.
For more information: FAO/UNTRS. 2008. Setting directions for sustainable fisheries and coastal
livelihoods in the post tsunami context, India: A report of the interventions by the FAO under the United
Nations team for Tsunami Recovery Support. FAO, UNTRS and UNDP. New Delhi.
20. Alternate-day fishing regulation in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk By areas of
Self-regulation by women seaweed collectors in the Gulf of Mannar region
of Tamil Nadu seaweed collectors
Maharashtra fishing communities initiatives on conserving coastal and
Community-based fisheries management in Nagapattinam District, Tamil
o Centrally sponsored scheme on "Development of Inland Fisheries and
o Centrally sponsored scheme on "Development of Marine Fisheries,
Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operation"
o Centrally sponsored scheme on "Welfare of Fishermen"
o Schemes of NCDC in the Development of Fisheries
o On-going subsidy schemes of MPEDA
22. Development of Inland Fisheries
1. Development of Freshwater Aquaculture.
2. Development of Brackishwater Aquaculture.
3. Coldwater Fisheries and Aquaculture.
4. Development of Waterlogged Areas.
5. Productive Utilization of Inland Saline/Alkaline Soils for Aquaculture.
6. Integrated Development of Inland Capture Resources (reservoirs/rivers
The expenditure on developmental activities will be shared on 75:25 basis by the Government
of India and the State/UT Governments in respect of all aforesaid components. The two
components namely, Development of Freshwater Aquaculture and Brackishwater
Aquaculture are to be implemented by a single agency (FFDA). The remaining four
components are to be implemented through the Fisheries Department of the respective
Besides subsidy on the approved items under the scheme, the balance amount for these items
may be obtained as loan made available to the beneficiaries through FFDA’s/States/UT’s
Fisheries Department from lead banks/participating banks. Subsidy for all approved items
under the scheme can also be given to a beneficiary if the remaining cost of items is
contributed by him from his/her own resources and is duly certified by the
FFDA’s/States/UT’s Fisheries Department.
The implementing agencies had to furnish quarterly/annual progress reports
indicating physical and financial achievements regularly in the prescribed format
already communicated to the State/UT Government. The accounts of the agency shall
be subject to audit by Chartered Accountants appointed by the agency and/or by such
other officers of Government of India/State/UT Governments as required under the
rules and report should be intimated to this Ministry.
The State/UT Governments has to ensure that the proposals for the various
components are complete in all aspects accompanied by detailed progress reports of
the central share released during the proceeding years and reasons for shortfalls, if
any, etc. The availability of budgetary provision in the State Budget should be
specifically indicated in the proposal.
In 1977 the level of availability of fish for the entire population of the country was only 4.13 kg per
capita per annum, as compared to 14.9 kg in the United States of America and 10.9 kg for the United
During 1950 to 1977 he national income from fisheries, as assessed by the Central Statistical
Organisation is of the order of Rs. 3,610 million out of the total national income from Agriculture
estimated at Rs. 2,74,760 million.
During 1950 - 1977 achievements registered in the fish production from a level of 0.75 million
tonnes to 2.3 million tonnes and the export earning through marine products from Rs. 25.6 million to
Rs. 2,000 million during the last 25 years, is highly significant. However, when compared to the vast
resources potential, it should be possible to raise substantially the level of production and export
earnings. The National Commission on Agriculture has estimated that the fish production of the
country could be stepped up to 8 million tonnes in the next twenty five years.
26. 1. Per capita fish consumption grown to 9.8 kg (FAO)
2. India’s seafood export have touched all time high of Rs. 18,856
crore for 2012-13 (MPEDA 2012-13)
3. India’s total export value is $ 3,512 million (MPEDA 2012-13)
4. The total quantity of exports showed a rise of 7.68% to 9,28,215
tonnes (MPEDA 2012-13)
5. The total marine fish landing 3.94 million metric tonnes (CMFRI
Annual report 2012-13)
6. Landing centers – 151
7. Major fishing harbors – 6
8. Minor fishing harbors – 38
9. Mechanized fishing vessel – 72,559
10.Motorized fishing vessel – 71,313
11. Non motorized fishing vessel – 50,618
(Source: Fishing Chimes, Vol.- 33, Page No.- 58)