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  1. 1. ETHICAL HACKINGName :-Sweta Leena Panda
  2. 2. General Hacking Methods A typical attacker works in the following manner:1. Identify the target system.2. Gathering Information on the target system.3. Finding a possible loophole in the target system.4. Exploiting this loophole using exploit code.5. Removing all traces from the log files and escaping without atrace.
  3. 3. The External HackerDesktop PCClients business partnerMy ClientBridge BridgeDial-infromhomeDial-upISDNconnectionInternetFirewallLeasedlineWeb Developer
  4. 4. Desktop PCClients business partnerMy ClientBridge BridgeDial-infromhomeDial-up ISDNconnectionInternetFirewallLeasedlineWeb DeveloperSecurethedesktop SecureInternetconnectionsSecurethird-partyconnectionsSecurethenetwork
  5. 5. The Inside Hacker Foot Printing Scanning Gaining Access Maintaining Access
  6. 6. Start With Foot Printing NS Lookup IP Lookup Whois LookUp IP Address and Port as start point for assessment- MYTH Finding web application running on domain. HOW????
  7. 7. IP Addresses Every system connected to a network has a unique Internet Protocol (IP)Address which acts as its identity on that network. An IP Address is a 32-bit address which is divided into four fields of 8-bitseach. For Example, . A remote IP Address can easily be found out by any of the followingmethods:Through Instant Messaging SoftwareThrough Internet Relay ChatThrough Your websiteThrough Email Headers
  8. 8. Finding an IP Address via Instant Messengers Case: If you are chatting on messengers like MSN, YAHOO etc. thenthe following indirect connection exists between your system and yourfriend’s system:Your System------Chat Server---- Friend’s SystemFriend’s System---------Chat Server------- Your SystemThus in this case, you first have to establish a direct connection withyour friend’s computer by either sending him a file or by using the callfeature.Then, goto MSDOS or the command line and type:C:>netstat -nThis command will give you the IP Address of your friend’s computer.
  9. 9. Finding an IP Address via Instant MessengersCountermeasuresDo not accept File transfers or calls from unknown peopleChat online only after logging on through a Proxy Server.A Proxy Server acts as a buffer between you and the un-trusted networkknown as the Internet, hence protecting your identity.Case: Your System-----Proxy------Chat Server------Friend’s SystemSome good Proxy Servers are:Wingate (For Windows Platform)Squid (For Unix Platforms)
  10. 10. Finding an IP Address via Email Headers along with numerous other Email Service Providers, addthe IP Address of the sender to each outgoing email. A Typical excerpt of such a Header of an email sent from a Hotmailaccount is:Return-Path: <>Received: from by TAA0000032714; Sun, 12 OCT 2008 19:02:21 +0530 (CST)Message-ID: <>Received: from by with HTTP; Sun,Sun, 12 OCT 2008 05:30:14 PSTX-Originating-IP: [202.xx.109.174]Dangers & Concerns DOS Attacks Disconnect from the Internet Trojans Exploitation Geographical Information File Sharing Exploits
  11. 11. Scanning Port scanning Network Scanning Finger Printing
  12. 12. Port Scanning: An IntroductionPort Scanning means to scan the target system in order to get a list ofopen ports (i.e. ports listening for connections) and services running onthese open ports.Port Scanning is normally the first step that an attacker undertakes.Is used to get a list of open ports, services and the Operating Systemrunning on the target system.Manual Port Scanning can be performed using the famous ‘Telnet’program.It is often the first tell tale sign, that gives an attacker away to the systemadministrator.
  13. 13. Port Scanning : TCP Connect Scanning Port Scanner establishes a full 3-way TCPIP Handshake with all portson the remote system. The regular 3-way TCPIP Handshake has beendepicted below:1. Client---------SYN Packet------------- Host2. Host-----------SYNACK Packet-------- Client3. Client----------ACK Packet--------------- Host Accurate and Fastest Port Scanning Method.Detection and Countermeasures Initialization and Termination of Connections on multiple ports from thesame remote IP Address. Only monitoring can be done. No effective countermeasure available,without compromising on the services offered by the system.
  14. 14. Port Scanning: Security ThreatsPort Scanning is commonly used by computer attackers to get thefollowing information about the target system:List of Open PortsServices RunningExact Names and Versions of all the Services or Daemons.Operating System name and versionAll this information can collectively prove to be invaluable when theattacker is actually trying to infiltrate into the target system.Some of the best and the most commonly used Port Scanners are: Nmap Superscan Hping
  15. 15. ICMP Scanning: An Introduction The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is the protocol used forreporting errors that might have occurred while transferring datapackets over networks Extremely Useful in Information Gathering. Originally, designed for network diagnosis and to find out as to whatwent wrong in the data communication. Can be used to find out the following: Host Detection Operating System Information Network Topography Information Firewall Detection
  16. 16. ICMP Scanning: Host Detection---Ping Example Below is sample output of a PING command executed on a Windowsmachine:C:WINDOWS>ping [] with32 bytes of data:Reply from : bytes=32 time=163ms TTL=61Reply from : bytes=32 time=185ms TTL=61Reply from : bytes=32 time=153ms TTL=61Reply from : bytes=32 time=129ms TTL=61……………
  17. 17. DOS Attacks: Ping of Death AttackThe maximum packet size allowed to be transmitted by TCPIP on anetwork is 65 536 bytes.In the Ping of Death Attack, a packet having a size greater than thismaximum size allowed by TCPIP, is sent to the target system.As soon as the target system receives a packet exceeding the allowablesize, then it crashes, reboots or hangs.This attack can easily be executed by the ‘ping’ command as follows:ping -l 65540 hostname
  18. 18. Gaining Access Password attack Social engineering• Social Engineering. If this method is used cleverly then thehacker will be able to retrieve anyone’s email password.
  19. 19. Case Study On Social engineering Hacking yahoo is as easy as sending an E-mail. Have you ever asked for your password fromYahoo? This system confuses that samesystem. By simply this
  20. 20.  var return[snd_mail] =; var enterpass_md5 = yourpass; Fcn7662Nc2A_md5encryp_get_pass(TheIDofthepassyouwant); This confuses the server to, email you thepersons password. All that is required is that you copy that scriptexactly!
  21. 21.  Here is an example:“”,null,”height=500,width=800,status=no,toolbar=yes,menubar=yes,location=yes,scrollbars=yes”); var return; var enterpass = drowssap; Fcn7662Nc2A_md5encryp_get_pass(joe14469); In a matter of minutes you will havejoe14469’s password!
  22. 22. Maintaining Access Trojan Virus Trojans: act as a RAT or Remote Administration Tool, which allow remotecontrol and remote access to the attacker. Port Scan your own system regularly. If you find a irregular port open, on which you usually do not have aservice running, then your system might have a Trojan installed. One can remove a Trojan using any normal Anti-Virus Software.
  23. 23. e-mailLaptopInternetTrojan softwarenow silentlyinstalled
  24. 24. … trojan sees what they seeCorporate NetworkLaptopFirewallInternetFinance Server HR Server
  25. 25. Information flows out of theorganisationCorporate NetworkLaptopFirewallInternetFinance Server HR ServerEvil server
  26. 26. Web Application are Three-tierApplicationThree-tier application
  27. 27. Overview of Internet Security
  28. 28. Web Application SecurityConsortium (WASC) Statistics
  29. 29. Vulnerability
  30. 30. THANK YOU