2. COURSE SCHEDULE
CHAPTER 1: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
INTRODUCTION AND STATES
CHAPTER 2: NON-STATES
CHAPTER 3: INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
CHAPTER 4: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES
3. WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS?
Narrowly defined, the subject of International
Relations (IR) concerns the relations among
the world’s goverments.
It is usually taught often in a combination
with, or as part of political science.
4. CORE PRINCIPLES
IR revolves around one key problem: How can a
group, such as two or more countries, serve its
collective interests when doing so requires its
members to forgo their individual interests?
For example, every country has an interest in
stopping global warming, but each country also
keeps on burning fossil fuels to develop its
5. The problem of shared interests versus conflicted
interests among members of a group is called
collective goods problem.
Three basic principles offer possible solutions to this
Dominance: Solves the collective goods problem by
establishing a power hierarchy where those at the
top control those below.
Reciprocity: Solves the collective goods problem by
rewarding behaviour that contributes to the group
and punishing behaviour that pursues self-interest.
Identity: Solves the collective goods problem by
caring about the interests of others in a community
to sacrifice one’s own interests to benefit others.
6. ACTORS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
International Relations includes not only relations
between States but also between States and Non-
state Organizations such as multinational
corporations, and between States and
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) such as
the U.N. and the E.U.
10. According to the Idealist Theory:
Sustainable peace is impossible if a nation is under
the hegemony of another nation.
Warfare should be avoided due to its destructive
11. Idealist Theory fell from grace with the beginning of
World War II.
The reason for this was that the warfare had not
been prevented by this theory and killed so many
people although it aimed to sustain peace among
According to the Realist Theory, international
politics is a chaos and constant struggle for
power, not necessarily resulting in constant
open warfare, but always necessitating a
readiness to go to war.
For this purpose military power is the key
Interdependence Theory challenges the realist idea
that the state is the most important entity in
It stresses the importance of non-state actors, such
as human rights organizations and their influential
role in a more complex global society.
16. Basic Concepts in International
Diplomacy is a concept that means international
relations should be conducted not with war but
with peaceable ways and instruments.
The golden rule in diplomacy is being
determined inside but being soft in words.
The beginning of war means the failure of
17. 2. CRISIS
Narrowly defined, crisis is a dispute between states
or various power blocks which is “resolvable but
possible to tranform into war’’.
Decision-makers mostly prefer one of the two below
choices during crisis:
1) Finding the pre-crisis equilibrium (former status
2) Finding new equilibrium with the change after
18. DEFINING THE STATE
• The state, the basic unit of the modern global
state system, is a complex political and legal
concept of crucial importance in the study of
• According to international law, all states have a
19. Even the smallest and least powerful state has to meet
certain basic criteria to obtain recognition as a member
of the state system by other states in the global system
20. It must have:
1. A defined territory.
2. A permanent population.
3. A government which is capable of maintaining
effective control over its territory and conducting
international relations with with other states.
21. In the real world of international relations, there is an
enormous variation in the degree to which states
meet these criteria.
Many states struggle to maintain effective sovereign
control over even some parts of their defined
territory, so they may find themselves confronted by
Even external recognition is not an absolute criterion
22. We cannot produce everything, we buy goods and
products, even borrow money. States are connected to
each other not only politically, but also economically.
For example, many countries refused to recognize the
state of Israel.
Thus, generally we can say that it is enough to have
external recognition from a considerable number of
states, most importantly from the United Nations.
The term ‘nation-state’ describes the states which are
sovereign and part of the global states system.
These states seek to foster a sense of national identity
However, one should be aware that there is a huge
amount of tension, hostility and conflict between ‘state’
and ‘nation’ in modern international relations.
According to Morgenthau, the factors that determine
the power of a country are connected to:
Attribute of the diplomacy and the attribute of the government.
25. Generally, we may say that 4 different methods are
used to implement power:
4- Use of force
26. This concept tries to explain the states’ planned or
natural struggle to balance the powers of the other
states in international relations. It assesses a
constantly changing situation between alliances.
The Balance of Power
In the field of international relations, it is assumed
that states behave according to their own national
28. In the broadest sense, security means being away
from danger, being safe and protected.
Is a state of usually open and declared armed hostile
conflict between states or nations. War includes violence,
economic destruction and social disruption.
31. TYPES OF WAR
1. HOT WAR
2. COLD WAR
3. REGULAR ARMY WARS
4. WARS WITH WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
32. Types of War
According to the
Wars of the
Wars of the
not all the