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Modern Nanostructures for Diagnosis and Treatment

Modern Nanostructures for Diagnosis and Treatment

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Modern Nanostructures for Diagnosis and Treatment

  1. 1. Modern Nanostructures for Diagnosis and Treatment<br />
  2. 2. We would like to minimize side effects while maximizing efficacy- our main tool is to distribution<br />Ideally we would like our delivery system to provide:<br /><ul><li>Long circulation time
  3. 3. Present at target in sufficient quantity
  4. 4. No loss of efficacy</li></ul>Why work with nanoscale drug delivery systems?<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Small particles (<10 nm) are lost to extravasation (absorption into tissue)
  6. 6. Large Particles (>200 nm) are quickly captured and excreted
  7. 7. Particles between 70 and 200 nm show longest circulation time
  8. 8. Particles between 10 and 70 nm penetrate capillary vessels</li></ul>Active Targeting<br />Bioactive substances can be triggered to release drugs at target area.<br />Long circulation time- Particle size<br />
  9. 9. Barriers<br /><ul><li>Blood-Brain Barrier
  10. 10. Non-ionized, lipophilic materials
  11. 11. Epithelial junctions in skin
  12. 12. Gene transfection
  13. 13. Targeting of sub cellular structures</li></ul>Loss of efficacy<br /><ul><li>Some drugs must be protected while in circulation
  14. 14. This is the motivation for a number of the structures</li></ul>Managing Distribution<br />
  15. 15. Nanocapsules<br />Nanotubes<br />Nanogels<br />Dendrimers<br />Nanoshells<br />Nanocomposites<br />Nanofibers <br />Other Structures<br />Nanostructures<br />
  16. 16. Encapsulated structures protect drugs, allow for surface modification<br />Liposomes :<br /><ul><li>Closed, continuous bi-layered structure
  17. 17. Synthesized with polymers
  18. 18. Tendency to aggregate and fuse</li></ul>Nanostructures- Liposomes<br />
  19. 19. Liposome Micelles in Practice<br />Effect of the hydrophobic molecule on the morphology of the micelles. (a) 10% wt. F127, (b) 10% wt. F127 with 0.2% wt. Haloperidol.<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Can be synthesized and stored without drugs, subsequently loaded
  21. 21. Extended stability
  22. 22. Low Toxicity
  23. 23. Limited methods for surface coating</li></ul>Nanostructures-Nanogels<br />
  24. 24. This category encompasses vesicular porous structures<br />Typically Silica or Calcium Phosphate<br />Minimum reliable pore size ≈ 2 nm<br />Materials can be trapped in interior space with nanoparticle “corks”, which can be actively targeting<br />Alternately, structure may be biodegradable<br /><ul><li>Drugs are released from internal cavities as structure erodes </li></ul>Nanostructures-Nanoshells<br />
  25. 25. Nanostructures-Nanofibers<br />Applications<br /><ul><li>Medical – tissue scaffolding, drug delivery
  26. 26. Industrial - fuel cells, filtration </li></ul>Nanofibers<br />
  27. 27. Nanostructures-Buckyballs<br /><ul><li>Symmetric shape</li></ul>-> lubricant<br /><ul><li>Large surface area</li></ul>-> catalyst<br /><ul><li>High temperature (~750˚C)
  28. 28. High pressure
  29. 29. Hollow</li></ul> -> caging particles<br /><ul><li>Forms a crystal by weak van der Waals force
  30. 30. Superconductivity</li></li></ul><li>Bucky Paper<br />A thin sheet made from nanotubes that are 250 times stronger than steel and 10 times lighter that could be used as a heat sink for chipboards, a backlight for LCD screens or as a faraday cage to protect electrical devices<br />

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