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PUARL+BB2020 "A Pattern Language for Creating a City with Natural, Local and Creative Elements"

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Misaki Yamakage, Sakie Namiki, Sawami Shibata, Kiyoka Hayashi, Takashi Iba, Mitsuhiro Yamazaki, "A Pattern Language for Creating a City with Natural, Local and Creative Elements: Learned from Portland, Oregon", PUARL+BB2020, Sep, 2020

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PUARL+BB2020 "A Pattern Language for Creating a City with Natural, Local and Creative Elements"

  1. 1. Misaki Yamakage Sakie Namiki Sawami Shibata Kiyoka Hayashi Takashi Iba Mitsuhiro Yamazaki A Pattern Language for Creating a City with Natural, Local and Creative Elements: Learned from Portland, Oregon *1 Keio University *2 Portland Urban Architecture Research Laboratory (PUARL), University of Oregon *3 Creative City Lab *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *2 *3
  2. 2. Our Research Project To create a pattern language of sharing essences in a specific city in order to incorporate such essences into another city’s development 
  3. 3. A city we choose is… Portland, Oregon, USA
  4. 4. Multiple Japanese cities are carrying city development projects modeled after the city of Portland + Prof. Iba lived in Portland as Research Associate of PUARL in 2018 - 2019 → Experienced the texture of Portland → Developed connections with people in Portland + Mitsuhiro Yamazaki, involved in many city development projects in Japan belonged to Portland Development Commission (PDC) Background of choosing Portland
  5. 5. Japanese Books about Portland
  6. 6. City Development Modeled after Portland in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan FARMER’S MAEKET
  7. 7. City Development Modeled after Portland in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan Portland and Sapporo are sister cities for over 60 years Food Card Area Event Venue Mixed Use
  8. 8. City Development Modeled after Portland in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan ←A book about strategies taken in Portland written by the mayor of Setagaya City LECTURES AND WORKSHOPS
  9. 9. City Development Modeled after Portland in Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan WITH PORTLAND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION ON PUBLIC-PRIVATE- ACADEMIC PARTNERSHIP
  10. 10. Other City Development Examples Modeled after Portland Zushi city (City Repair) Tokushima city (Farm to Table) Manazuru city (Tech Lab) Wakayama city (Workshops)
  11. 11. City Development in a city with less historical texture Not all the cities in Japan are like Kyoto… City Development is difficult especially in cities with only a few historical features and tourism resources →Portland succeeded under such a situation
  12. 12. → Tend to remain in shallow copy in some cases → Focusing on differences and cannot get how good aspects of a model city can be incorporated in own city City Developments Modeled on A City Patterns mined from Portland ? Abstracting Generating Another cityPortland Pattern Language written in lifted abstract level can be a tool resolving such problems, and incorporating the essentials in different area
  13. 13. Why does Portland become a model city in city developments in Japan? What makes multiple Japanese Cities Modeling Portland?
  14. 14. Mixture of Natural, Local and Creative Elements in A City We captured that is because of…
  15. 15. A Pattern Language for Creating a city with Natural, Local and Creative Elements Describe and share the natural, local and creative elements, which makes Portland attractive for Japan, in the purpose of utilization in city developments
  16. 16. Mining of elements in Portland ・Urban Development Strategist ・Belonged to Portland Development Commission(PDC) ・Involved in multiple projects of town development ・Lived in Portland for sabbatical ・Visited Portland for multiple times Naoko Tamura Kyoko Shinohara Kaoru Miyanaga ・A pioneer of organic food preparation in Japan ・Runs a restaurant serving healthy food in Portland ・A coordinator of food and agriculture, energy,  and environment-related inspections in Oregon ・Organizer of ‘’Portland Japan Girls’’ ・A secretary of Japan-America Society of     Oregon (JASO) Prof. Takashi Iba Mitsuhiro Yamazaki
  17. 17. 1 NATURAL × LOCAL × CREATIVE A good town is not only a functional environment, but also a well-balanced mix of natural, local and creative elements. When people try to create a good city, they tend to focus on the functional aspects of the city in order to provide each resident with an efficient and comfortable living environment. It is true that a city with as many functional conveniences as the location allows, or with trendy designs, or with similar buildings artificially placed side by side, may be filled with material wealth, but it remains in a cramped space that does not allow for spiritual comfort. One of the indicators of the richness of human life is "spiritual richness". This indicator is different for each person, but only when people are satisfied with this spiritual richness, it can be said that the city is really in a good state. So how does spiritual richness become a reality? It is important that each person's life is fulfilling and easy to live, but at the same time, as long as people gather to form a city and live in the same area, the city as a whole and the lives in the city must be rich. The first thing that can satisfy the need for spiritual enrichment is the presence of natural elements in the city. Just as there are always a certain number of people who prefer to live in the country, and just as every urban development is dotted with trees, even if they are artificial, people desire to live in a way that allows them to feel nature. Nature is inseparable from human history and daily life, just as cotton, vegetables, wood, and other resources necessary for food, clothing, and shelter are derived from nature. The space created by nature, which is the opposite of people’s busy lives, is essential for us to live stress-free, rich life. In order to feel this, nature should be close to our lives. Secondly, it is important for a city to have many interactions and vitality that creates a local element. If the town as a whole has a sense of unity and love for its neighbors, it is easy to collaborate and help each other. By using local ingredients for food and valuing local products, a regional cycle can take place within the town and a sustainable, high quality lifestyle becomes possible. And finally, let's not forget the creativity and uniqueness - the creative element. This element allows people to create their own lives in the city, rather than all working and living in a similar way. By designing a town that encourages challenge of people as a space, people will be able to work on their own initiative, and each person will be able to live their lives with vibrancy and commitment. When self-expression is celebrated and people are able to create a life that suits them, they can recognize, connect, and enhance each other. When these three elements, natural, local and creative, come together, people can envision their ideal life and try to give shape to it, and the town as a whole can become a lively space. Therefore: Build a town that incorporates these three elements.
  18. 18. In Portland, there is a system called the "Urban Growth Boundary" that defines areas where town development is allowed and prohibits further erosion into nature. Due to this, not only protect the great nature in the neighborhood, but also stay a town in compact size. This is different from "The Green That was There(8)", but it is possible to remain the nature naturally by determining areas for nature where are completely unattended by humans. As described, a "system that leaves the whole of nature" a little distance from everyday life, enables you to develop towns without causing large- scale destruction of ecosystems and placing a burden on the environment. Furthermore, this environment makes you protected by nature and easier to cherish nature. As a result, it enables coexistence of nature conservation and urban development. Therefore: Establish boundaries between nature and urban areas with a view to future development. Establish boundaries that are not unreasonable and are slightly wider than the areas currently being developed. 9 NATURE SURROUNDING TOWN Activities and awareness to protect nature are necessary. However if you limit the areas in which humans can develop, you can minimize the environmental load. Originally, all the places on the earth were surrounded by nature.However human beings have cultivated there, and an artificial place has been created as a city gradually. The point is, for building and developing towns, cultivating nature is indispensable. However, this does not mean that we can destroy nature. If people cultivate nature endlessly, it leads to the destruction of nature and the loss of circulation as an ecosystem. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to establish restrictions to coexist with nature in the long term in advance. NATURAL
  19. 19. 18 STORES WITH PASSION AND ORIGINALITY LOCAL If you just focus on efficiency and profitability, small businesses cannot survive. Though there are various things that customers ask for in stores, stores that are too close to customers' needs tend to give priority to cost reductions and efficiency, private businesses are unsafe and chain stores are more prevalent. But when you were asked about favorite stores, how do people answer that? The answer is the stores in pursuing their own commitments, not the stores in considering profits or only needs for customers. In the future, stores must provide their own commitment and attract customers. What is specific about our commitment? For example, remaking drinks from usual beer or wine to craft beer or wine from rare localities, using local organic ingredients and making open spaces for feeling the atmosphere outside.In any case, it is important that each shop has their own concepts and thoughts and communicates them to customers through menus and provision of services. Portland has various small businesses. They don't compete with each other, however if there is a commonplace shop, the customer will choose an original shop naturally. In this way, there is an environment in which small businesses enhance their own commitments to each other unconsciously. Furthermore, being able to select stores that match their mood every time leads to the richness of the lives of residents. As a result, both stores and customers are able to raise their level of commitment. Therefore: emphasize the distinctiveness of the shop by promoting one's own commitment even on a small scale. For example, knowing the story of the agricultural products from producers through the “Farmers Market (15)” helps them understand the concept and what part we should make use of. Thus it makes it easier to reflect their thoughts in cooking/works. It is also expected to develop ideas by sharing the preferences of “Local Shops (17)”. Your preference will always capture the hearts of customers, and sales will follow.
  20. 20. 27 DRAWING OWN TOWN CREATIVE Awareness that residents will create towns and their own livelihoods, and expectations that they will make towns better by themselves, encourage community development with the participation of residents. Japanese residents' associations and neighborhood associations have little administrative impact and their activities are limited to festivals and volunteers to revitalize local communities. As areas of contribution to the community are narrow, the willingness to participate in community development is difficult to enhance. On the other hand, Portland has self-governing organizations authorized by the city, called neighborhood association. In there, the desired citizens participate on an individual basis and carry out activities aimed at improving the ease of living, such as beautifying the local environment and developing, providing, and proposing social welfare. Also the city has a certain budget for neighborhood associations, and opinions and suggestions from neighborhood associations must be discussed in congress. In addition to neighborhood associations, there are other activities that incorporate the voices of citizens. The "Vision PDX," which was carried out from 2005 to 2008 and was aimed at envisioning the future of Portland, drew up 17,000 opinions over two years. In order to capture more voices of residents, various plans were taken, such as providing tea with flashy trucks on the street corner in the summer, offering snacks to children, and taking questionnaires at different places and times by age. By listening to and incorporating the residents’ opinions rather than by deciding the opinion from only government, residents can think positively about their town development, and a better town can be built. Therefore, create a system that enables citizens to participate independently in community development, and to develop community taking in the opinions of citizens. In this way, citizens and government can work together to shape “Lifestyling (20)” even on a large scale that cannot be achieved by only citizens.
  21. 21. ENJOY THE NATURE In a developed city, it is easier to open the distance between nature and humans. However, if nature is not located close, people will not be able to develop a sense of sustainability. The greatness of nature, which is different from parks that artificially include green space, teaches people the value of nature. Therefore, create trails near where it is possible to feel the natural scenery while walking. The presence of local farmers is indispensable for the small creation of the town. However, if there are no farms in the vicinity, not only  people have to rely on the big companies that make it hard for small businesses to be maintained, but they also have to rely on the unnecessary energy such as transport and freezing to distribute the vegetables. Therefore, establish a farmer/farm in the vicinity. Enjoying the changes in nature makes it possible for people to live in harmony with the natural flow of nature, which is healthy for our bodies. That means choosing what is in season when it comes to food. Seasonal food is more organic and best in terms of health and quality. It is possible to feel the power of nature and to use it as energy for one's life, in a town that can feel the seasons. Therefore, create a town that is close to nature, where people can experience the changes in nature. Accessible Trails Seasonal Experience Nearby Farms 3. 4. 2.
  22. 22. ECO-FRIENDLY AND HUMAN-FRIENDLY LIFE In the first place, human life is only possible because of nature, and humans are just a part of the ecosystem. Everything around us comes from nature, and we can ensure sustainability in the true sense of the word by always being grateful for the things around us. Therefore, make a town a place where people can feel that their lives come from nature. If people try to make the most effective use of their towns, if they try to make each space functional, then the number of places that have a specific purpose and are not easy to drop in on will increase. However, if there are places in the town where people can simply relax and enjoy themselves, they will be able to return to their natural selves even in their busy lives. Therefore, prepare spaces in the town where people can go and sit down without a purpose. Sometimes it is inconvenient to have an eco-friendly life, and because of the high entry barrier, it is difficult to engage in. Therefore, first create an environment where people can easily make eco-friendly choices in order to enrich their lives. Improve maintenance services for bicycle paths and offices, create parks as a way out, and establish a structure to enrich life. Human Lives Build on Nature Blank Space in A Town Ecological Richness 6. 7. 5.
  23. 23. LIFE AS A PART OF NATURE Even though there is green in the town doesn’t mean you can definitely feel nature. Therefore, when creating a town, instead of designing the town by adding nature, design the nature that was originally there. When building a house, be careful to build where there are no trees. Activities and awareness to protect nature are necessary. However if you limit the areas in which humans can develop, you can minimize the environmental load. Therefore, establish boundaries between nature and urban areas with a view to future development. Establish boundaries that are not unreasonable and are slightly wider than the areas currently being developed. Obtaining resources from nature means you are destroying nature at a small level. Therefore, set limits to maintain a "constant and unchanging nature" as the town develops. Set limits on the amount of resources available from nature and create structures that keep the natural cycle going for trees to be regenerated. The Green that was There Nature Surrounding Town A Preserved Ecosystem 9. 10. 8.
  24. 24. A TOWN WITH OVERFLOWING CONNECTIONS The bigger the size of the town will be, the more difficult it is for residents to see the town as their own business. Therefore, make the living area into a compact size. Place facilities necessary for living in an area where you can walk. If there is only one purpose in the place, only people with the same ideas gather, and that will lose the diversity of people in the town. Therefore, mix all the houses, offices, or commercial facilities in a single town or in a single building. For example, place commercial facilities such as restaurants on the first floor, and a house on the upper floor. Every store needs a sense of openness in order to create a pleasant town to walk on. Therefore, design the store so that the atmosphere inside the store can be seen from the outside. Cover the area near the entrance with a window, or provide a mechanism so that people from the outside can recognize the store. A Walkable Distance The Town that is Mixed Up An Opened Space 12. 13. 11.
  25. 25. CYCLES WITHIN A TOWN The act of destroying a building is the same as destroying the culture there. Therefore, build a town with the textures that have been nurtured. When constructing a new building, the old one should not be completely razed, but rather a mixture of historical and contemporary culture. Farmers' markets are the midway point in the city that connects citizens through food. Therefore, hold a Farmer’s Market at the following locations. They should be held in locations throughout the town that offer a sense of seasonality. They should be held regularly, to the extent that they are rooted in the community. Provide a place where people can experience a variety of things, not just buy things. We need to establish a mechanism to promote the circulation of goods throughout the town. Therefore, set up a mechanism to promote the circulation of goods in the whole town. Nurtured Texture Farmer’s Market The Cycle of Things 15. 16. 14.
  26. 26. ESTABLISHMENT OF TOWN IDENTITY A town infested with systematized businesses driven by mass production in search of efficiency and profit is just one of the towns that can be found anywhere. Therefore, put in place a system to increase local business for the first stop. If you just focus on efficiency and profitability, small businesses cannot survive. Therefore, emphasize the distinctiveness of the shop by promoting one's own commitment even on a small scale. A shortcut to have a sense of unity in a town and to spread and develop the good things about a town, is to increase the number of people in the town. Therefore, create spaces and gimmicks that foster deep connections. Local Shops Stores with Passion and Originality Producing Connection 18. 19. 17.
  27. 27. A TOWN GROWING RESIDENTS’ INTERESTS A truly good town that residents can be proud of is not the local specialties or tourist attractions, but rather "the life you can live in the town". Therefore, create a town that pursues the ideal lifestyle set forth by its residents. We will give back to the town with our passion for life. Therefore, there must be a place where you can send out your commitment on a regular basis. That commitment must be expressed in something that can be visualized. Respecting and accepting the odd thing will inspire citizens and shape a creative and  attractive city. Therefore, let every citizen have their own community which they can enhance what they are committed to in order to let them be able to capture uniqueness in a positive way. Lifestyling Gallery of Specialities Positive Attitude towards Uniqueness 21. 22. 20.
  28. 28. Most things can be made by yourself if you take advantage of human connection and the internet. Therefore, make some manufacturing space that can be easily accessed to make manufacturing more familiar. The businesses do not have to necessarily be started on a large scale when you try to turn your hobby into your occupation. Therefore, provide some places in the town where citizens can sell their work casually and regularly. The flow of time and the changes in time are inevitable, so the quality of human life and products will be declined unless they respond to the changes. Therefore, set a margin to accommodate changes. The vision should be always kept in mind, but do not make many rigid rules. Craft Space Diving in Startup Margins for Change 24. 25. 23. A TOWN WHICH RESIDENTS CAN ACHIEVE THEIR VISION
  29. 29. CREATING OWN TOWN A good city is formed by respecting diversity but maintaining the unity of buildings. Therefore, establish a set of criteria for the design of architecture in order to keep the unity in the town. Indicators such as the design guidelines will help the town to rediscover what kind of place the town is, even if the town grows, changes and increases in diversity. Awareness that residents will create towns and their own livelihoods, and expectations that they will make towns better by themselves, encourage community development with the participation of residents. Therefore, create a system that enables citizens to participate independently in community development, and to develop community taking in the opinions of citizens. Challenges exist in every era and in every town, and the shape of the future will change depending on whether the attitude toward the challenge is passive or active. Therefore, draw an image of the ideal appearance of the city you want to create while facing the challenges of the city and make long-term efforts to get close to that ideal. The town has to be a pioneer experimenting new actions and initiatives for the purpose of achieving that ideal and this would lead to a "good" town for the residents. City Guide Line Drawing Own City Ideal Image beyond Challenges 27. 28. 26.
  30. 30. Relation with Patterns from A Pattern Language (APL) A Pattern Language (APL)A Pattern Language for Creating a city with Natural, Local and Creative Elements 5. 9. 14. Human Lives Build on Nature Nature Surrounding Town Nurtured Texture 4. SACRED CITES 8. The Green that Was There 61. 171. 172. SMALL PUBLIC SQUARES TREE PLACES GARDEN GROWING WILD 165. OPENING TO THE STREET13. An Opened Place by Christoper Alexander et al. Proposed Patterns
  31. 31. A Pattern Language (Universal Patterns) Project Pattern Language (Desired Patterns) Proposed Pattern Language we created is between ‘A Pattern Language’ and ‘Project Pattern Language’ A Pattern Language for Creating a city with Natural, Local and Creative Elements (Patterns mined from a specific city for incorporating them into 
 other city development) Proposed Pattern Language
  32. 32. +Creating Pattern Languages sharing elements of other cities FUTURE WORK ① Publishing a Book / Pattern Cards of the Pattern Language ② Holding Workshops with using the Pattern Language
  33. 33. Misaki Yamakage Sakie Namiki Sawami Shibata Kiyoka Hayashi Takashi Iba Mitsuhiro Yamazaki A Pattern Language for Creating a City with Natural, Local and Creative Elements: Learned from Portland, Oregon *1 Keio University *2 Portland Urban Architecture Research Laboratory (PUARL), University of Oregon *3 Creative City Lab *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *2 *3
  34. 34. PROCEEDINGS, COINs13 A PATTERN LANGUAGE FOR GOOD OLD FUTURE FROM JAPANESE CULTURE Megumi Kadotani Aya Matsumoto Takafumi Shibuya Younjae Lee Saori Watanabe Takashi Iba Keio University 5322 Endo, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-0882 Japan e-mail: ABSTRACT Having developed greatly over millennium under its culture, the ancient buildings and old town atmospheres maintain a quality of comfort. However, people only appreciate the “good old” quality and do not think further about the rational reasons why they feel comfort in it. This keeps them from creating their own things and models with good old quality, relying on the imported western thinking and methods as a result of modernization. Since people are now struggling under the imbalanced and complex society, we believe that support is needed for generating things and frameworks with good old quality in modern time situations and scenes. Therefore, we propose a language, which verbalized the process of generating things and systems with such quality under creative activities. Based on Christopher Alexander’s pattern language of describing good design practices, we have created a Pattern Language for good old future from Japanese culture. In order to create things and frameworks with a quality of comfort in collaboration, a common language is needed among people in Japan. Using this pattern language, people will be able to create their own comfortable society where frameworks and things with good old quality are widespread. Additionally, by extracting the good old quality from old cultural backgrounds, it will be possible to build on a society with its fully cultivated culture alongside a firm basis. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, people visit ancient buildings and towns as sightseeing places where they feel and enjoy the atmosphere and emotional senses. We unconsciously feel comfort in and appreciate such mood called good old quality, which has developed over a period of time. It is a quality, which we feel comfort in while usually visiting traditional and historical sites, in thought of the past. However, people go no further than sensing the good old quality, leaving behind the deep understandings about the reasons why we feel comfortable. Though our ancestors has accumulated the comfort in traditional culture, if we do not understand the reasons why we feel pleasure in it, finding ways to create a future with comfort would be difficult. More importantly, we are most likely to design a future with comfort not only by finding and understanding the good old quality from the past, but also by setting up creations using a suitable method. This will help pass down the comfort to the next generation and set precedents of good old periods and society to reflect on. Naming such comfort, good old quality, we eagerly aim to support people in both discovering it and making it. To accomplish our goal of helping people to discover and create a good old quality, we used the format of pattern language as an effective description. PATTERN LANGUAGE Architect C. Alexander pursued the quality of “good old” in buildings and has presented pattern language, a methodology of describing good design practices. He extracted a common form out of good old buildings and called it a “pattern.” After gathering them as one language, C. Alexander presented pattern language, which is verbalized and described in a particular format. Each pattern is written in the order of Context, Problem, Solution, and Consequence, explaining the types of problems and its occasion, possible actions, and finally, the result. Following the Alexandrian format, context, problem, and solution, help people realize, as context, solution, and consequence, influence people to design. Therefore this inspired people both to discover and create a good old quality. <Scene> “Bonsai,” originated in and imported from China, had developed as part of the important Japanese culture to cherish the sceneries of nature through plant cultivation in gardens. After the miniature tree is transferred to a low-sided pot and is gently taken good care of, it allows the viewers to imagine it as a full-size tree with a compact form of aesthetics. The unique practice of looking further into the “unseen” aesthetics of Bonsai shows the tacit interaction with miniature trees. The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation and self-realization on a grand scale through continuous dialogues with the traditional art form. Additionally, Bonsai transforms its theme each season, placed at Japanese-style restaurants to demonstrate the seasonal aspects of nature. Such display offered an opportunity for the viewers to talk about the theme and added a cultural topic in communication. In modern days, small figures of “anime” characters are presented as specimen of the unreal world. Another example would be miniature trains, which exemplifies the big and long trains to enjoy at home. As explained, the specimen inspires us to conceptualize a reviving and vital image, capturing the details of the object and converting it into a smaller size as duplication. Also, well-known Japanese fresh confections in Kyoto are skillfully made to vastly express note a seasonal reminder in spite of being small. In making Japanese confectionary, diverse and profound art techniques are used, such as representing the season by color and highlighting contrast to symbolize complex nature. <Context> You come across a mesmerizing scene. <Problem> You are trying to keep the memory that you have encountered in real life, but you forget as time elapses. <Solution> Exemplify and compress the grand scenery into a smaller size as a compact universe in details. <Consequence> You can immerse yourself into the grand scenery through an art form in a small scale. Such form of Japanese aesthetic will cover all aspects of the scenery in every detail. This will allow the viewers to witness the vitality and lively objects as if they are moving. The grandness of a microcosm and tradition will originate under the co-existence of complexity and authenticity. No.2 INNERMOST AND EXTRAORDINARY <Scene> Like the inner shrine of Mount Koya, the residence of the Gods has been placed behind the main hall of the temple or deep in the woods from ancient times. The path to the gods' residence runs through the shrines in the order of *“Shimosya,” “Nakasya,” “Kamisya,” and finally “Okusya.” Thus, it is as if the path is guiding us towards an uncommon world from daily life. Traditionally constructed houses are also made with spacing of depth, drawing us on a long way from the entrance to the living room, the hallway to the Japanese parlor, then to the bedroom. Therefore, this distance emphasizes “depth” in any space and tracing such area was considered good. Furthermore, Basho Matsuo, writer of “haikai” poems, expresses aesthetic and dignity, in one of his works; “Through the curtains of the deep inner room, I catch a Megumi Kadotani, Aya Matsumoto, Takafumi Shibuya, Younjae Lee, Saori Watanabe, Takashi Iba, "A Pattern Language for Good Old Future from Japanese Culture", 4th International Conference on Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs13), Santiago de Chile, August, 2013