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Appreciative Inquiry - an overview

Appreciative Inquiry - a model that seeks to engage stakeholders in self-determined change. A complementary approach to "problem solving"

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Appreciative Inquiry - an overview

  1. 1. Appreciative Inquiry openware
  2. 2. What is Apreciative Inquiry?
  3. 3. Appreciative Inquiry •  Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is based on a deceptively simple premise: that organizations grow in the direction of what they repeatedly ask questions about and focus their attention on. •  The method was created by Dr. David L. Cooperrider and Dr. Suresh Srivastva at the Case Western Reserve University in Ohio in the 1980’s.
  4. 4. Appreciative Inquiry “ In every organization there is something which work well and which constitutes its DNA. The development of this organization depends on doing more and better what already works well. ”
  5. 5. Appreciative Inquiry •  Research in sociology has shown that when people study problems and conflicts, the number and severity of the problems they identify actually increase. •  But when they study human ideals and achievements, peak experiences, and best practices, these things — not the conflicts — tend to flourish.
  6. 6. Problem Solving vs AI Problem Solving •  What to fix •  Underlying grammar = problem, symptoms, causes, solutions, action plan, intervention •  Breaks things into pieces & specialties, guaranteeing fragmented responses •  Slow! Takes a lot of positive emotion to make real change. •  Assumes organizations are constellations of problems to be overcome Appreciative Inquiry •  What to grow •  New grammar of the true, good, better, possible •  “Problem focus” implies that there is an ideal. AI breaks open the box of what the ideal is first. •  Expands vision of preferred future. Creates new energy fast. •  Assumes organizations are sources of infinite capacity and imagination
  7. 7. Appreciative Inquiry •  What’s going well •  Discover the best •  Why is the best the best? •  Amplify the best
  8. 8. Appreciative Inquiry Principles •  Constructionist Principle We construct realities based on our previous experience, so our knowledge and the destiny of the system are interwoven. •  Principle of Simultaneity Inquiry and change are simultaneous •  Poetic Principle The system’s story is constantly co-authored, and is open to infinite interpretations •  Anticipatory Principle What we anticipate determines what we find •  Positive Principle As an image of reality is enhanced, actions begin to align with the positive image
  9. 9. Appreciative Inquiry Principles •  Constructionist Principle We construct realities based on our previous experience, so our knowledge and the destiny of the system are interwoven. •  Principle of Simultaneity Inquiry and change are simultaneous •  Poetic Principle The system’s story is constantly co-authored, and is open to infinite interpretations •  Anticipatory Principle What we anticipate determines what we find •  Positive Principle As an image of reality is enhanced, actions begin to align with the positive image
  10. 10. The five principles of AI
  11. 11. The five principles of AI •  The constructionist principle •  The principle of simultaneity •  The poetic principle •  The anticipatory principle •  The positive principle • 
  12. 12. The five principles of AI •  The constructionist principle proposes that what we believe to be true determines what we do, and thought and action emerge from relationships. •  Through the language and discourse of day to day interactions, people co-construct the organizations they inhabit. •  The purpose of inquiry is to stimulate new ideas, stories and images that generate new possibilities for action.
  13. 13. The five principles of AI •  The principle of simultaneity proposes that as we inquire into human systems we change them and the seeds of change, the things people think and talk about, what they discover and learn, are implicit in the very first questions asked. •  Questions are never neutral, they are fateful, and social systems move in the direction of the questions they most persistently and passionately discuss.
  14. 14. The five principles of AI •  The poetic principle proposes that organizational life is expressed in the stories people tell each other every day, and the story of the organization is constantly being co-authored. •  The words and topics chosen for inquiry have an impact far beyond just the words themselves. •  They invoke sentiments, understandings, and worlds of meaning. In all phases of the inquiry effort is put into using words that point to, enliven and inspire the best in people.
  15. 15. The five principles of AI •  The anticipatory principle posits that what we do today is guided by our image of the future. •  Human systems are forever projecting ahead of themselves a horizon of expectation that brings the future powerfully into the present as a mobilizing agent. •  Appreciative inquiry uses artful creation of positive imagery on a collective basis to refashion anticipatory reality.
  16. 16. The five principles of AI •  The positive principle proposes that momentum and sustainable change requires positive affect and social bonding. •  Sentiments like hope, excitement, inspiration, camaraderie and joy increase creativity, openness to new ideas and people, and cognitive flexibility. •  They also promote the strong connections and relationships between people, particularly between groups in conflict, required for collective inquiry and change.
  17. 17. Problem Solving vs AI
  18. 18. Appreciative Inquiry
  19. 19. DEFINITION •  This phase is arguably the most important one in the AI cycle, because it establishes the initial focus and scope of the inquiry.
  20. 20. 01 . DISCOVERY •  This practice represents a dramatic departure from normal statistical “sampling.” •  AI operates on the premise that the act of asking positive questions is as important as the data it elicits. •  For that reason, the more people interviewed, the stronger the organization’s movement in the direction of the inquiry.
  21. 21. 01 . DISCOVERY •  The Discovery phase is about appreciating the positive core. During this phase, participants ask questions that explore and identify strengths—of a team, organization, group, or individual. •  The overarching question in this phase is: “What gives life?”
  22. 22. 02 . DREAM •  Here, the goal is to envision what we want to happen. •  We ask questions about stories; then, we can ask questions of those stories to elicit more in the way of rich detail around themes. These may include dream dialogues, which look at building out aspirations and wishes about the shared future. •  The overarching question of the Dream stage, is therefore: “What might be?”
  23. 23. 03 . DESIGN •  The Design stage is about building the visions and ideas with the greatest potential, together. •  In co-constructing ‘the ideal’, therefore, the questions become slightly more specific and focused on clarifying. •  The overarching question of this phase is: “What should be?”
  24. 24. 04 . DESTINY •  We now ideally have images of a shared, positive future that leverages our organizational strengths. The Destiny stage is about encouraging shared commitment and discussing how teams and individuals will help bring provocative propositions to life. •  The overarching question here, is: “How to empower, learn, and improvise?”
  25. 25. Appreciative Inquiry Exercise Identify a career or personal highpoint associated with either leading change or introducing innovation: 1.  Share the most memorable parts of the initiative including challenges, innovations and changes with your support network 2.  Reflect on what were the ’root causes of success..’ 3.  What were your three best qualities or experienced strengths Envisioning the future: •  You wake up and it is 2025. What do you see about you that is new, different, changed, better…
  26. 26. Appreciative Inquiry Books

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Appreciative Inquiry - a model that seeks to engage stakeholders in self-determined change. A complementary approach to "problem solving"

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