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  1. POLICY BASED STRATEGIC PLANNING : Setting Vision, Mission, Objectives, Goals And Core Values Theme: Optimizing the Operations of NADDC for Higher Productivity BY Dr TANKO AHMED, fwc Retired Senior Fellow (Security & Strategic Studies), NIPSS, Kuru-Jos, NIGERIA MD, AANDEC Consult Limited, National Defence College, Abuja Visiting Senior Lecturer, Security & Strategic Studies, Baze University, Abuja 080 3703 1744 - -
  2. The Strategic Blend
  3. A Prologue • Strategic planners are able to theorise, advance, and execute plans for achievement of set goals. • Straegic plans involve the setting of vision, mission, goals and objectives, guided by core values of the organisations. • This paper explains the critical role of strategic planning, its meaning, approaches, components, and applicability.
  4. INTRODUCTION “… strategic planning should be more about collective wisdom building than top-down or bottom-up planning.” - Kim and Mauborgne (2004) In ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’
  5. Background • Strategic planning is different from the ordinary ad-hoc planning in which few disconnected projects are identified from time to time for implementation (Imobighe, 2014:2) . • It is integral with a comprehensive vision, in which all the vital elements of its resources including human and material, are effectively engaged towards the promotion of the goals and aspirations of the organisation.
  6. Importance of Strategic Planning • Strategic planning is an overall organisational management activity aimed at setting priorities, focusing energy and resources, strengthening operations, co-opting and galvanising both internal and external stakeholders in attainment of set goals. • It is an outcrop of, but similar to, the complex and contingency-prone nature of the strategic management process.
  7. The Place of Strategic Planning in Strategy • As the term and practice of strategy revolves around the making and execution of plans or methods for achieving an end. • Strategic planning defines the strategy or direction, including for decision making on resource allocation in pursuance of set goals or objectives (Bryson, 2018). • It draws participation from various sources to analyse organisational situations with its environment (Mintzberg & Quinn, 1996; Simandan, 2018).
  8. The Strategic Planner • Strategic planners are middle to higher organisational leaders involved in making, translating, and setting the organisation’s vision and mission for attainment of set goals and objectives dictated by established core values. • As a strategist, the strategic planner is a theorist who has to devise and execute plans that should advance and perhaps secure the goals specified by policy (Ohmae, 1982; Gray, 2009).
  9. Why Strategies Fail • Strategy may sound romantic as every organisational leader would assume or aspire to be a strategist but “… too often leaders pour their energy and resources into formulating strategy and spend too little time figuring out how to implement that strategy throughout the organization” (Edinger, 2012:1). • Most strategies are created in nice resorts or conference centers, by small groups of people turning out beautiful paper work and slides which fail in the boardroom. • The truth mostly remains that most leaders fail—not in the formulation of strategy, but in its implementation (Edinger, 2012).
  10. Diligence in Strategic Planning • Diligence in strategic planning therefore provides the break-point from where strategies could transform into realities, with results. • Figure 2 – Showing Diligence in Strategic Planning • Source:
  12. Strategic Planning • Strategic plan map out the direction an organization is heading, how to get there, what is required and making sure that such mission is on right putting (Mastrodonato, n.d). • It is an organisational management activity used for setting priorities and directions toward set goal based on vision, mission and core values of an organisation. • It is an instrument of getting things done with specifications.
  13. Vision and Mission • Vision and mission are associated with future plan, intention, direction, strategy or strategic plan often expressed as ‘mission and vision statement’. • Mission and Vision Statements (MVSs) usually imply well thought-out ideas, mental picture, far- sightedness, conceptualization, visualization, foresight, forethought, imagination or prescience for direction. • MVSs are used for communicating set objectives and direction in short, simple, but adjustable pronouncements responding to situational dictates.
  14. Goals and Objectives • Goals are general guidelines explaining what to achieve in an organisation usually placed on long-term frame representing visions. • Objectives focus on defining strategies and implementation steps for attaining set goals. • While goals tend to be generic, objectives are more specific, measurable, and have time frame outlining the “who, what, when, where, and how” of reaching set goals.
  15. Core Values • Values are principles or standards of behaviour or yardstick for judgement in making decision or taking action. • Ventures, activities or processes are tied to core values which include the fundamental intents or beliefs of organizations as guiding principles to help determine the path and fulfillment of set goals or objectives. • Organisational systems, structures and processes are generally ran on given principles or core values.
  17. Nature of Strategic Planning • The nature of strategic planning requires team work, group compliance and effective control respectively expressed in the trio of collaboration, cooperation and coordination, also known as the 3Cs of strategic planning process (SPP). • This triad of partnership forms the ‘three legs’ of the SPP, without which no strategic plan can be successful. • The integration of collaboration, cooperation and coordination (3Cs of SPP) is the essence of strategic planning and continuation of its process.
  18. Collaboration • Collaboration requires working with others, joining or pooling of resources or team work in pursuance of common goals. • It is “… self-generating or recursive as different components seek to one another for mutual benefits” (Marinez-Moyano, 2006:83). • Strategic planners tend to share knowledge to arrive at consensus or common ground, especially when resources are finite and need to be shared (Spence, 2006; Wagner & Leydesdorff, 2007).
  19. Cooperation • Cooperation denotes compliance to group task as a result of liaison and formation of common ground for mutual gains. • Human nature allows for cooperation, if handled properly (Ernest, 2011) • It is a platform for unity of purpose, accommodation of one another and sense of obligations required by the strategic planner to attain set goals, along with significant others.
  20. Coordination • Coordination provides required control through directing, organizing, managing and synchronizing for harmony in scaling complex situations. • Strategic planning process requires stability and control to make things move accordingly.
  22. Strategic Planning Modelling • Strategic planning is a well-developed organisational process conducted by means of standardized models including vision-based or goal-based, issues-based, alignment, scenario, organic, and real time models. • Modeling in strategic planning depends more on strategic approach and analysis with two major strands falling into the purview of this paper as vision- and issue-based.
  23. Vision-based or Goal-based Modeling • Vision-based or Goal-based strategic planning bars a linear approach cut out of established vision or goal of an organization. • It is based on linear thinking following known or definite directions often tied to vision or goal ( • This model harbours organization’s mission, vision, goals, strategies, action plans, profiles and implementation monitoring and evaluation (Ezendu, 2012).
  24. Issues-Based Modeling • Issues-Based strategic planning tends to identify issues facing the organization, analyze related ideas, prepare a plan, monitor implementation and makes needed adjustment (Lins, n.d; Ezendu, 2012). • It inclines to details left out by the vision- based planning process.
  26. Stakeholder Buy-In as Strategic Process • Strategic planning requires initiation, purpose, needs, management, utility, commitment and the process of getting it off the ground. • It is also necessary for all Stakeholders to agree in collaboration, cooperation and subsequent coordination of its initial and consequent process called ‘stakeholder buy- in’.
  27. Guidelines for Strategic Planning Process DiNapoli (2003) stipulates guidelines for SPP to include the following:  Getting organized by forming a Team for organizing efforts;  Agreement on a plan process on where the organization is, where is it wants to be in the future, how to get there and how to monitor progress;  Putting the plan together for various sections of the organization, how it will be organized and communication strategies.
  28. Other Guidelines • Developing elements of the plan by use of organization’s mission and vision statements, goals, objectives and strategies; • Application approaches based on challenges and remedies; and • Monitoring through performance measurement schemes.
  29. Smooth Conduct of Strategic Planning • A smooth conduct of strategic planning require deliberate but clear communication with all stakeholders to initiate and agree on the process, identify mandates, clarify mission and values, and assess the organisation’s environment by means of SWOT Analysis. • Other aspects will be to identify the strategic issues at stake, formulate strategies, review and adopt the strategic plan(s), establish an effective vision, develop an effective implementation process, and reassess strategies and planning process (Loy, n.d.).
  31. Benefits of Strategic Planning • All organizations strive to set goals and move towards achieving their objectives by way of strategic planning. • Organizations use strategic planning to assure success and sustainable progress in pursuing their missions, visions and core values (Boyden and Waldman, 2012) . • As its benefits, strategic planning provides direction; promotes strategic thinking and sense of security; improves decision making; enhances awareness and effectiveness; and develops internal control.
  32. Costs of Strategic Planning • The lack of strategic planning is ruinous to the vision, mission, and values of whatever an organization stands for. • In the highly competitive environment, the Nigerian auto-industry, strategic planning is a ‘do or perish’ process without which survival is very difficult in the face of fierce competition and available ‘alternatives’.
  34. The Settings • Effective strategic planning is possible only when an organisation, including its stakeholders, are able to define core purpose in vision based on shared values, and competencies. • Other aspects include knowing what is achievable, what is important and how to go about it. • These will provide strategic direction and clear sense of mission. • In this way, setting vision, mission, objectives, goals, and core values, is possible as part of strategic planning.
  35. The Workings • The strategic planner who is also a strategist and theorist should be able to refer and reflect on the take-off point of strategic management covering strategy formulation, implementation, review and control. • The process of strategic analysis also provides the specifics to subject the entire organisational environment to scrutiny and identify critical issues for consideration. • All instruments and models mentioned earlier are available for use by the strategic planner as challenges are encountered.
  37. The Automobile Industry  The automotive industry is a strategic and catalytic sector in economic development.  It creates employment, contributes to GDP, advances auto-parts SMEs, provides components and services, skills development, and technology acquisition.  It is foundational to other modern advanced manufacturing activities, like commercial vehicle production, manufacture of agricultural, mining and railway equipment, military hardware and earthscape light and heavy equipment.
  38. The Automotive Industry Development Plan (NAIDP)  The NAIDP was established to transform the Nigerian automotive industry and attract investment into the sector.  The Auto Sector is a key component of the Nigerian Industrial Revolution Plan (NIRP).  The NIRP is a 5-year programme developed by the Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade, and Investments (FMITI) to diversify Nigeria’s economy and revenues through industry.
  39. The NAIDP Policy Document  The NAIDP will need to be in place for a number of decades as is the case in other such programmes around the world.  The NAIDP Policy Document an initial10-year outline (2014-2024).  With administrative procedure for periodic reviews essential for the success of such complex industrial programmes.
  40. Objectives of the NAIDP  NAIDP aims to curtail Nigeria’s almost total dependence on imports and to meet a significant proportion of its demand through domestic production.  Automotive industries around the world tend to be integrated with significant trade in vehicles and components between the automotive producing economies.  The objective of the NAIDP is to move as rapidly as is feasible to balance of payments neutrality and then into surplus.
  41. Pillars of the NAIDP  Industrial infrastructure  Skills Development  Standards  Investment Promotion  Vehicle Purchase Scheme
  42. Application of a Policy Based Strategic Plan to the NIADP • There is the need to subject the NIADP to strategic analysis in which the process of policy-based strategic planning can be executed. • Strategic issues must be identified clearly through SWOT Analysis before a strategic plan is ascribed. • The Retreat Participants as ‘internal stakeholders’ are to perform a very short exercise to reframe the vision and mission to take new opportunities and face new challenges.
  44. Summary and Conclusion • This paper describes, explains and explores the background, importance and place of policy- based strategic planning for the NIADP. • It presents the settings and workings of vision, mission, goals, and objectives in strategic planning. • The paper reviews the NIADP Policy Framework Document and concludes that it needs to be subjected to an on-the-spot strategic analysis for strategic planning. • The NIADP Retreat Participants are requested to subject the Document to appropriate ‘strategic treatment’in a short simulation exercise.
  46. References Boyden, J. and Waldman, W. (2012), Strategic Planning for Non-profit and Non-governmental Organizations, Huamin Philanthropy Brochure Series – 4, Rutgers School of Social Work, Retrieved from on June 5, 2014 DiNapoli, T. P. (2003) Local Government Management Guide: Strategic Planning, Office of the New York State Comptroller, Retrieved from on June 16, 2014 Edinger, S. (2012) Three Cs of implementation strategy. Forbes, August 7. Retrieved from 16/11/18 Ernst, F. (2011), Altruistic Punishment in humans, London: Macmillan Magazines Ltd. Retrieved from on June 6, 2014. Ezendu, E. (2012). Strategic Planning Models Retrieved from, on June 13, 2014 Gray, C.S (2009) Schools for strategy: Teaching strategy for 21st century conflict, A Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) publication, November 2009. Kim, W. C. and Mauborgne, R. (2004) Blue ocean strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press Lins, N. E. (n. d). Strategic Planning: A Worthwhile Process? Retrieved from on June 13, 2014 Loy, C. K. (n.d.) Strategic planning for public sector: A general framework. Retrieved from 15/11/18 Marinez-Moyano, I. J. (2006), Exploiting the Dynamics of Collaboration in Inter-Organizational Settings, Ch. 4, p. 83 In Schuman (ed) Creating a Culture of Collaboration, New York: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from on June 7, 2014 Mastrodonato, P. (n. d) Developing a Strategic Plan for Your Organization – A Roadmap for the Future. Retrieved from on June 13, 2014 Ohmae, K. (1982) The mind of the strategist: the art of Japanese business. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Spence, M. U. (2006) Graphic Design: Collaborative Processes = Understanding Self and Others. Lecture (Art 325) Collaborative Processes, Fairbanks Hall, Oregon University, Corvallis, Oregon, April 13. Retrieved from on June 7, 2014 Wagner, C. S. and L. Leydesdorff (2007) Globalisation in the Network of Science in 2005: The Diffusion of International Collaboration and the Formation of a Core Group. Retrieved from on June 7, 2014.