A coin is basically a metallic piece as a medium of exchange having a
specific metallic weight standard and a certain metallic purity.
As coins are primarily required in exchange related activities, these
are invaluable sources for economic history, especially the history of
In the history of Bengal the coins are divided by some specific period
according there characteristics.
There are no clear evidence when the people of our sub continent first
started the use of coins.
The discovery of silver coin from Taxila
( near Kabul) from 5th
century BC provides the
archeological evidence of the introduction of
minted metallic pieces as coined money in the Punch Marked coins
subcontinent. (Source: Banglapedia)
These instead bear a number of symbols, which were punched on the
silver piece with separate punches; this is why these are called
punch marked coins.
These coins are uninscribed and do not carry any names of rulers, it is
likely that the earliest specimens could have been issued by
professional 'guild'-like bodies of merchants.
The numismatic scenario in Bengal becomes much more illuminated
during the period from c 4th to the 7th centuries AD.
The most remarkable point is the availability of a large number of
Imperial Gupta (c320-570 AD) gold coins, generally of excellent
quality and execution.
The imperial Gupta rulers starting from Chandragupta I (c AD 320-35)
to Visnugupta (around the middle of the sixth century) issued gold
coins of different types with the maximum varieties of gold coins
being struck by Kumaragupta I (c 414-54).
Sikka and Khutbah (right of issuing coins in the name of the ruling
king and announce his name in the sermons delivered during Friday
prayers) are considered symbol of sovereignty in the Islamic world.
bakhtiyar khalji, to commemorate his victory over Gaur, struck coins
in the name of Mohammad bin Sam in 1205 AD from Gaura.
That was the first Muslim coin struck in Bengal. From the conquest of
Bengal in 1205 to the independence of Bengal in 1338, Bengal had
been ruled as a province of the Delhi Sultanate for nearly 130 years.
Provincial governors struck coins from Bengal in the names of their
respective Delhi rulers following the type of the Delhi coins.
There are two types of coins of the independent
sultans of Bengal: coins of the governors
appointed by the Delhi authority who proclaimed
independence during 1205 to 1338 AD and the Gold coins of Akbar
coins of the independent sultans of Bengal struck
during 1338 to 1538 AD.
10. Modern coins of Bangladesh
After independence many new coins were introduced like 5’ 10, 25,
and 50 poisha.
First 1 taka coin introduced in Bangladesh in
1992 and there were four human figures and
a slogan, 'planned family-Food for all’.
2 taka coin was introduced first in 2004 and
first 5 taka coin was introduced in 1994.
Bangladeshi art has a long history which originated more than two
thousand years ago and is practiced even in this date.
Art in Bengal developed in varied and diverse ways during the nearly
two hundred years of British colonial rule.
Among the various forms of Bangladesh art, photography,
architecture, sculpture and painting are the most notable.
The remains of the ancient archaeological sites bear ample testimony
to the fact that the art of architecture was practiced in Bangladesh from
very early period of her history.
The Somapura Mahavihara, a creation of
of the Pala ruler Dharmapala, at
paharpur, Bangladesh is the largest
Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent, Somapura Mahavihara
and has been described as a pleasure to the eyes of the world.
The Kantajew Temple in Dinajpur, built in navaratna style contains
one of the finest examples of terracotta ornamentation of the late
period of the art.
The Sixty Dome Mosque in Bagerhat has been described as "the most
impressive Muslim monument in the whole of the Indian subcontinent.
The Lalbagh Fort is considered as one of the greatest examples of
As in other countries of the world, the people of rustic, and primitive
ideas developed folk art in Bangladesh.
The environment and the agricultural activities greatly helped to
enrich the traditional folk-art of Bangladesh.
The folk art of Bangladesh has been largely contributed by the rural
women because of the artistic value as well as the quality of their
Alpana and Nakshi kantha are some of the most attractive forms of
Bangladeshi Folk art.
Alpana artists or Nakshi kantha needlewo-
men were working within the home and
received no monetary recompense for their
labor. Nakshi Khatha
Pottery and Ivory are also some popular forms of the art.
The movement of modern art in Bangladesh has its roots in the early
The movement of modern paintings in Bangladesh has its roots in the
early 20th century.
There is a rich tradition of modern painting
Which was pioneered by Zainul Abedin,
Kamrul Hassan, Anwarul Haque, Shafiuddin
Ahmed and S. M. Sultan. Zainul Abedin’s Painting
Zainul Abedin earned international fame for his sketches on famine
of 1943 in Bangladesh.
Sculpture have an indispensable part of Bangladeshi culture.
The earliest sculptures in Bangladesh discovered so far date back to
Sculptures have been a key a source of rendering the historic identity
of the ancient Bangladesh.
Even though the art of sculptures in Bangladesh began almost 2500
years ago, it mostly flourished during the Gupta, Pala and Sena
dynasty all of which belong to the early Middle Ages (1-1200 CE).
The Gupta rulers were devoted Vaishnavas, and early Gupta
sculptures are found to be mostly representations of Vishnu or any of
The Gupta sculptures of Bangladesh are mostly
icons and their forms were determined by the
characteristics of the gods as prescribed by the
priests of Central India. Sculpture of Gupta period
Some of the earliest sculpture of Gupta period found in Rajshahi
district and those were collected by Varendra Research museum.
During more than four hundred years of Pala rule (8th-12th century
AD), many centers of sculptural art flourished simultaneously in
different regions of the extensive empire of Bangladesh.
Thousands of sculptures of this period have been discovered and they
now form part of the collections of a number of museums in
Pala sculpture derives its origins from the late Gupta style, but later on
deviated from it.
A large number of sculptures representing Hindu gods and goddesses
belong to the phase of artistic activity initiated under the Sena rulers (c
From the artistic point of view, Sena sculpture is a continuation of the
Pala style in vogue till the late 11th century AD.
The slender body form of the late Pala period sculpture is retained in
the Sena period, but the modeling quality shows a marked
(Materials of those Sculpture)
Most of the ancient sculptures discovered in Bangladesh are made of
terracotta, bronze, black stone etc.
The earliest sculptures were made of terracotta dating back as early as
3rd century BC.
The trend of using bronze for sculptures started from the 7th century.
The black stone sculptures also originated from that period.
Sculptures created after the independence of Bangladesh can be
referred as modern sculptures.
Most of this sculptures depict the gallant
struggle of Bangladeshis during the
liberation war of Bangladesh.
some of notable sculpture of modern
time are Aparajeyo Bangla, Shabash Bangladesh, Jagroto chowrongi
23. Jatra(Popular Drama)
Jatra a form of folk drama combining acting, songs, music, dance,
characterized by stylized delivery and exaggerated gestures and
The jatra may be traced back to at least the 16th century.
In Chaitanyabhagavad (1548), Brindavan Das describes a dramatic
performance during which Sri CHAITANYA himself performed the
role of Rukmini.
Scholars such as Kapila Vatsayan believe this to be the birth of
24. Jatra(Popular Drama)
By the 18th century, a number of other forms of jatra had developed:
Shakti Jatra, Nath Jatra and Pala Jatra.
Perhaps the most important developments in jatra during the 18th
century were the introduction of comic characters such as Narada and
A major change in jatra took place after the First World War when
nationalistic and patriotic themes became incorporated into the jatra.
25. Jatra(Popular Drama)
Though religious myths and sentimental romances continued to
dominate the jatra, the nationalistic and patriotic spirit of Bengal also
found its expression in the jatra.
MUKUNDA DAS (1878-1934) and his troupe, the Swadeshi Jatra
Party, performed jatras about colonial exploitation, patriotism and
anti-colonial struggle, oppression of feudal and caste system etc.
26. Jatra(Popular Drama)
Until the end of the 19th century, the adhikari used to write the play.
The adhikari would either buy the text
outright or would pay a royalty. Another
change that took place at this time
was the introduction of the character of
Jatra was an important form of entertainment in the rural society in the
past but nowadays it has been replaced by many modern forms of
Bangladesh has a rich, diverse culture and its deeply rooted heritage is
thoroughly reflected in its architecture, dance, literature, music, painting
and clothing. It describes how enrich our culture is and how great nation
we are. Those important elements of culture makes us a unique nation of
all over the world.
HN Wright, Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, Vol II,
Coins and Chronology of the Early Independent Sultans of Bengal,
Social and Cultural History, Sirajul Islam
Folk art of Bangladesh: In the eye of an American”. The Independent
(Bangladesh). Retrieved14 January2013
Shatgumbad Mosque, Banglapedia, accessed January 12
Alam, Shamsul Alam (2012). "Pala Sculpture". In Islam, Sirajul;
Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of
Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
Bhattacharya, Asok K (2012). "Sculpture". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal,
Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of
Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.