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Survey of WML

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Introducing WML

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Survey of WML

  1. 1. Mobile Website Development Survey of WML Facilitated by: Michael Wakahe Tawi Commercial Services Ltd Jul 2011
  2. 2. Table of Contents  Introduction  Hello World  Introducing JSP  Exercises Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Introduction Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Introduction Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved. The WAP Stack
  5. 5. Introduction  WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol) & WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol) provide low-level glue between the upper levels and the really low-level communications.  WTLS (Wireless Transaction Layer Security) provides security services (encryption and authentication). Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Introduction  These protocols aren't relevant to normal application programmers  The second highest level in the stack is the high- level communications protocol, called WSP (Wireless Session Protocol).  Provides a complete replacement for HTTP Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Introduction  The highest stack level is WAE (Wireless Application Environment)  This is the part that the user actually sees & interacts  The WAE aims to provide a World Wide Web-like model for writing applications Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Introduction  The WAE incorporates several key features of the Web that we are familiar with, e.g. URLs & MIME content types (such as text/html and image/gif)  Additionally it provides similar replacements for other features: HTML is replaced with WML (Wireless Markup Language) & JavaScript is replaced with WMLScript Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Introduction  Almost all WAP applications can be written without using anything outside of these two languages and WBMP (Wireless Bitmap: the WAP image format) Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Introduction Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved. The WAP Chain of Processing
  11. 11. Hello World Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Hello World  We will use Eclipse to compose our WML and deploy in the Tomcat ROOT folder Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Hello World <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml"> <wml> <card title="First WML Example"> <p>Hello, World!</p> </card> </wml> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Hello World  Note that all tag names are in lowercase  In WML, tag names are case-sensitive  A file of WML represents a deck of cards  This is the reason for the <card> tag Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Hello World  Each individual card does behaves very much like an HTML page  So you can think of a WML deck as being similar to a number of HTML pages all grouped together Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Hello World  Cards in a deck are all downloaded at the same time  So the user has to wait only once & the others can be accessed almost instantly  Cramming too many cards into a single deck is bad practice  Ideally maximum of 5 to 6 cards per deck Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. WML Structure Explained Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. WML Structure Explained Valid child tags of <wml> are:  <head>: Defines document metadata and access control using the <meta> and <access> tags. Zero or one <head> tags are allowed in a document.  <card>: Defines a card to display in the browser. One or more <head> tags are allowed in a document. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. WML Structure Explained  <template>: Defines global event handlers and commands for the deck. Zero or one <template> tags are allowed in a document. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. WML Structure Explained Valid child tags of <card> are:  <p>: Contains text, images, and links. Most user- accessible and visible content in a WML card is child content of this tag. Zero or more <p> tags are allowed in a card.  <pre>: Contains preformatted text. Zero or more <pre> tags are allowed in a card. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. WML Structure Explained  <do>: Contains commands and actions. Zero or more <do> tags are allowed in a card.  <timer>: Activates time-based events. Zero or one <timer> tags are allowed in a card.  <onevent>: Specifies tasks based on different card- level events. Zero or more <onevent> tags are allowed in a card. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. WML Structure Explained Comments: <!-- A simple comment. --> <!--This is a comment that spans several lines.--> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. WML Structure Explained  Other topics in WML include: Special Characters, Header & Metadata, Text Formatting, Links, Images, Tables, Timers, Variables, User Input, WMLScript  Browse to http://learnthemobileweb.com/books for links to WML references and helpful documentation Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Introducing JSP Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Introducing JSP  WML can be mixed with JSP and Servlets  Save the following example as a .jsp not as a .wml  Deploy to servlet container (Tomcat) Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Introducing JSP <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml"> <% response.setContentType("text/vnd.wap.wml;charset=UTF-8"); int num1 = 9; int num2 = 12; %> <wml> <card title="First WML Example"> <p>My name is <% out.println("Michael"); %></p> <p>The sum of num1 and num2 is <%= (num1+num2) %></p> </card> </wml> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Exercises Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Exercises Spot the errors in the following sample: <wml> <card ID=start title='Example of Invalid WML'> <P>This markup is invalid. </card> </wml> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Exercises The WML code sample above has the following syntax errors:  XML declaration is missing.  DOCTYPE declaration is missing.  ID attribute of <card> tag is uppercase. (Well-formed WML requires lowercase tags.) Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Exercises  Value of the id attribute of the <card> is not delimited.  Value of the title attribute of the <card> tag is delimited with single quotes.  <p> tag is uppercase. (Well-formed WML requires lowercase tags.)  <p> tag has an open tag but not matching close tag. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Exercises Correct version is as follows: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.3//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml13.dtd"> <wml> <card id="start" title="Example of Valid WML"> <p>This markup is valid.</p> </card> </wml> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Exercises  Write a WML file that shows the first 7 digits of the Fibonacci Series. Can use JSP and/or servlets. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. The End Michael Wakahe michael@tawi.mobi +254 (0) 20 239 3052 www.tawi.mobi Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.

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