D O A N D R O I D S D R E A M O F
E L E C T R I C C O P Y R I G H T ?
D R A N D R E S G U A D A M U Z , U N I V E R S I T ...
A P O L O G I E S
A R T I F I C I A L I N T E L L I G E N C E
D E F I N I T I O N
An entity with the capacity “to
perceive, understand, predict,
and manipulate a world far
larger and m...
N E U R A L N E T W O R K S
• Artificial intelligence approach
based on biological neural
networks.
• Usually based on mat...
M A C H I N E
L E A R N I N G
“Field of study that gives computers
the ability to learn without being
explicitly programme...
A I A R T
A I A R T I N C U LT U R E
• Androids and robots have been
creating art almost since the
beginning.
• Music, poetry, photo...
C O M P U T E R
PA I N T E R S
• Early machine art in the 60s.
• Aaron
• e-David
• The Painting Fool
• Ava
• Deep Dream
• ...
S AVA N N A H C O X
“The completed portrait is a rich and intimate study of a man’s unique vision, his
materials, and his ...
G R A N D
A S P I R AT I O N S
“I'm The Painting Fool: a
computer program, and an
aspiring painter. The aim of this
projec...
A U T O N O M O U S
A R T I S T S
The idea is not to have a
computer pretending to be an
artist, as is the case now, but
r...
AVA
D E E P D R E A M
D E E P D R E A M
E X P L A N AT I O N
“Instead of exactly prescribing which feature we
want the network to amplify, we ca...
B E N D AV I E S
“Of course it’s art! There’s no limit to what you can classify as “art.”
The question is only ever whethe...
I M I TAT I O N O R C R E AT I O N ?
T H E N E X T
R E M B R A N D T
Project by Microsoft research
team that produced a new
Rembrandt painting by a
combination...
W H AT I S G O I N G
O N ?
• Is it really AI? Is it just clever use of
filters?
• Application of learning algorithms
and m...
T H E L A W
R I G H T S A N D
R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S
• This is not a new argument in law,
dates back to Roman laws
dealing wi...
! M E D I E N G R U P P E
B I T N I K
• Random Darknet Shopper
• Botnet buying random items from the
Darknet using Bitcoin...
N O N - H U M A N
R I G H T S
• Movement to grant some rights to
animals.
• Naruto v Slater. PETA sues
photographer on beh...
U K L A W
S 9(3) “In the case of a literary,
dramatic, musical or artistic work
which is computer-generated,
the author sh...
U S C O P Y R I G H T
O F F I C E
“In order to be entitled to copyright
registration, a work must be the
product of human ...
E U R O P E A N L A W
• In Europe a work is original if it is
“author’s own intellectual creation
reflecting his personali...
O P T I O N S F O R A I
C O P Y R I G H T
• No copyright due to no originality/
creativity.
• No registration.
• Make UK’s...
@ T E C H N O L L A M A 

A . G U A D A M M U Z @ S U S S E X . A C . U K
The mech shall inherit the Earth
Do androids dream of electric copyright?
Do androids dream of electric copyright?
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Do androids dream of electric copyright?

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Do androids dream of electric copyright?

  1. 1. D O A N D R O I D S D R E A M O F E L E C T R I C C O P Y R I G H T ? D R A N D R E S G U A D A M U Z , U N I V E R S I T Y O F S U S S E X @ T E C H N O L L A M A 
 A . G U A D A M M U Z @ S U S S E X . A C . U K
  2. 2. A P O L O G I E S
  3. 3. A R T I F I C I A L I N T E L L I G E N C E
  4. 4. D E F I N I T I O N An entity with the capacity “to perceive, understand, predict, and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated than itself”, Russell and Norvig, 1995.
  5. 5. N E U R A L N E T W O R K S • Artificial intelligence approach based on biological neural networks. • Usually based on mathematical models that use neuron equivalents.
  6. 6. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G “Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed”. Arthur Samuel, 1959.
  7. 7. A I A R T
  8. 8. A I A R T I N C U LT U R E • Androids and robots have been creating art almost since the beginning. • Music, poetry, photography, sculpture, games, dance. • From Star Trek to Her, from Lost in Space to Ex Machina.
  9. 9. C O M P U T E R PA I N T E R S • Early machine art in the 60s. • Aaron • e-David • The Painting Fool • Ava • Deep Dream • The Next Rembrandt
  10. 10. S AVA N N A H C O X “The completed portrait is a rich and intimate study of a man’s unique vision, his materials, and his inevitably flawed execution of outwardly conveying that internal vision to others. In short, it documents the human condition. But what if that act can be perfected through technology? Is it art, or is it science? Or both?”
  11. 11. G R A N D A S P I R AT I O N S “I'm The Painting Fool: a computer program, and an aspiring painter. The aim of this project is for me to be taken seriously - one day - as a creative artist in my own right. I have been built to exhibit behaviours that might be deemed as skilful, appreciative and imaginative.”
  12. 12. A U T O N O M O U S A R T I S T S The idea is not to have a computer pretending to be an artist, as is the case now, but rather have a creative artist in its own right through the use of novel algorithms.
  13. 13. AVA
  14. 14. D E E P D R E A M
  15. 15. D E E P D R E A M E X P L A N AT I O N “Instead of exactly prescribing which feature we want the network to amplify, we can also let the network make that decision. In this case we simply feed the network an arbitrary image or photo and let the network analyze the picture. We then pick a layer and ask the network to enhance whatever it detected. Each layer of the network deals with features at a different level of abstraction, so the complexity of features we generate depends on which layer we choose to enhance. For example, lower layers tend to produce strokes or simple ornament-like patterns, because those layers are sensitive to basic features such as edges and their orientations.”
  16. 16. B E N D AV I E S “Of course it’s art! There’s no limit to what you can classify as “art.” The question is only ever whether it’s good art. And people seem to be very amused by it.”
  17. 17. I M I TAT I O N O R C R E AT I O N ?
  18. 18. T H E N E X T R E M B R A N D T Project by Microsoft research team that produced a new Rembrandt painting by a combination of data mining existing art and using machine learning algorithms.
  19. 19. W H AT I S G O I N G O N ? • Is it really AI? Is it just clever use of filters? • Application of learning algorithms and machine learning. • Pre-selected levels of abstraction dependent on parameters. • Various levels of independence.
  20. 20. T H E L A W
  21. 21. R I G H T S A N D R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S • This is not a new argument in law, dates back to Roman laws dealing with slavery. • Rights and responsibilities of subjects that cannot exercise rights. • Negligence, contract, tort, we have ways of dealing with liability.
  22. 22. ! M E D I E N G R U P P E B I T N I K • Random Darknet Shopper • Botnet buying random items from the Darknet using Bitcoins. • It purchased drugs. • Police confiscated the bot, then released. • Public prosecutor deemed the artistic work outweighed any possible damage of purchasing drugs.
  23. 23. N O N - H U M A N R I G H T S • Movement to grant some rights to animals. • Naruto v Slater. PETA sues photographer on behalf of Naruto to have him declared as the selfie’s author. • “Copyright law is clear: It’s not the person who owns the camera, it’s the being who took the photograph.” Internet Policy Review: http://bit.ly/1O0qZSW
  24. 24. U K L A W S 9(3) “In the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work which is computer-generated, the author shall be taken to be the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the creation of the work are undertaken.”
  25. 25. U S C O P Y R I G H T O F F I C E “In order to be entitled to copyright registration, a work must be the product of human authorship. Works produced by mechanical processes or random selection without any contribution by a human author are not registrable. Thus, a linoleum floor covering featuring a multicolored pebble design which was produced by a mechanical process in unrepeatable, random patterns, is not registrable.”
  26. 26. E U R O P E A N L A W • In Europe a work is original if it is “author’s own intellectual creation reflecting his personality”. Directive 2006/116/EC. • Choice, selection of elements, composition, all may prove originality. (Infopaq, Painer cases). • Unclear if setting parameters and algorithms would be enough.
  27. 27. O P T I O N S F O R A I C O P Y R I G H T • No copyright due to no originality/ creativity. • No registration. • Make UK’s approach more widely used, programmer gets copyright. • Take a wider approach: “copyright laws . . . do not expressly require ‘human’ authorship.” Urantia Foundation v. Maaherra (1997). • Artificial Intelligence rights?
  28. 28. @ T E C H N O L L A M A 
 A . G U A D A M M U Z @ S U S S E X . A C . U K The mech shall inherit the Earth

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