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Research Title
Content analysis
and
Discourse analysis
Multiple Definitions.
Essential purpose.
Goal of Content
analysis.
Uses of Content
analysis.
Advantages &
Disadvantag...
Content
analysis
“A summarizing, quantitative analysis of
messages relying on scientific method and not
limited to types o...
Content analysis
“...technique for objective, systematic, &
quantitative description of manifest content
communication” (B...
ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF
CONTENT ANALYSIS
 Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) what Channel
(with) What Effect?
(Lasswell, 1948)
GOALS OF CONTENT
ANALYSIS
To draw inferences about:
A text
To obtain documentary evidence about:
A sender
A message
A rece...
Uses of Content analysis
Content analysis used for examine how news,
drama, advertising, and entertainment content
of mass...
Uses of Content analysis
It is a research tool used to determine the
presence of certain words or concepts within
texts or...
Advantages of
Content Analysis
gets at the central aspect of social interaction
looking directly at communication via text...
Advantages of
Content Analysis
Non-field design/method
Can be carried out on existing content
Un-obstructive design
Many t...
Disadvantages of
Content Analysis
Tends to simply consist of word counts.
Often disregards the context of the text.
Is red...
Disadvantages of
Content Analysis
Does not explain WHY of ‘content’
It’s descriptive and not explanatory
Restricted to ava...
Multiple Definitions.
Approaches to
Discourse analysis.
Uses of Discourse
analysis.
Advantages &
Disadvantages of
Disc...
Discourse
analysis
Discourse analysis is generally an umbrella term
for the many traditions by which discourse may
be anal...
Discourse analysis
Is the study of language in text and
conversation.
Is a general term for a number of approaches to
anal...
Approaches to
Discourse analysis
Uses of Discourse analysis
• Discourse analysis is the study of the ways in
which language is used in text and contexts,
d...
Uses of Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis is sometimes defined as the
analysis of language “beyond the sentence”.
Disc...
Uses of Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis is used at the start of a
discussion to foreground the topic under
discussio...
Advantages of
Discourse analysis
Discourse can be characterized as a way of
approaching and thinking about the problem.
Di...
Advantages of
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis may be used for a variety of
reasons.
Discourse analysis will enable t...
Disadvantages of
Discourse analysis
One limitation of discourse analysis is that the array of
options available through th...
Disadvantages of
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis is nothing more than a
deconstructive reading and interpretation of...
On your opinion
‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬
What is differences between Content
analysis and Dis...
Differences between
Content analysis
And
Discourse analysis
Topic content discourse
ontology
Realist - assumes
that an independent
reality exists
Constructionist - assumes
that reali...
Topic content discourse
method Quantitative
Qualitative (although can
involve counting
Categories
Analytical
categories ta...
Topic content discourse
Role of
context
Does not necessarily
link text to context
Can only understand texts
in discursive ...
Topic content discourse
Validity
Validity is in the
form of accuracy
and precision i.e.,
demonstrating
that patterns in
th...
 Radwa Hamdy Salah
content analysis and discourse analysis
content analysis and discourse analysis
content analysis and discourse analysis
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content analysis and discourse analysis

Content analysis & Discourse analysis

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content analysis and discourse analysis

  1. 1. Research Title Content analysis and Discourse analysis
  2. 2. Multiple Definitions. Essential purpose. Goal of Content analysis. Uses of Content analysis. Advantages & Disadvantages of Content analysis.
  3. 3. Content analysis “A summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages relying on scientific method and not limited to types of variables measured or context of messages.” (Neuendorf, 2002) “...systematic reading of texts and symbolic matter not necessarily from an author’s or user's perspective” (Krippendorf, 2004, p. 3)
  4. 4. Content analysis “...technique for objective, systematic, & quantitative description of manifest content communication” (Berelson, 1952, p. 18) “...a research technique that uses a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text.” (Weber, 1990, p.9)
  5. 5. ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF CONTENT ANALYSIS  Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) what Channel (with) What Effect? (Lasswell, 1948)
  6. 6. GOALS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS To draw inferences about: A text To obtain documentary evidence about: A sender A message A receiver (audience)
  7. 7. Uses of Content analysis Content analysis used for examine how news, drama, advertising, and entertainment content of mass media reflect social and cultural issues, values and phenomena. Content analysis is well suited to being combined with other research techniques such as survey, participant observation and audience ethnography.
  8. 8. Uses of Content analysis It is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts. Determine psychological or emotional state of person or groups. Describe attitudinal and behavioral responses to communication.
  9. 9. Advantages of Content Analysis gets at the central aspect of social interaction looking directly at communication via texts or transcripts, and hence can allow for both qualitative operations. Provides valuable historical/cultural insights over time through analysis of texts. Provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use.
  10. 10. Advantages of Content Analysis Non-field design/method Can be carried out on existing content Un-obstructive design Many times the only available method Can reveal macro-structure at minimum cost and maximum convenience
  11. 11. Disadvantages of Content Analysis Tends to simply consist of word counts. Often disregards the context of the text. Is reductive, when dealing with complex texts. Can be difficult to automate or computerize.
  12. 12. Disadvantages of Content Analysis Does not explain WHY of ‘content’ It’s descriptive and not explanatory Restricted to available material only Limited to literate or selected few May become obsessed with numbers without revealing insights
  13. 13. Multiple Definitions. Approaches to Discourse analysis. Uses of Discourse analysis. Advantages & Disadvantages of Discourse analysis.
  14. 14. Discourse analysis Discourse analysis is generally an umbrella term for the many traditions by which discourse may be analyzed. It is a critique of cognitivism that developed from the 1970s onwards, although it has its roots in the ‘turn to language’ in the 1950s (Woolgar, 1988).
  15. 15. Discourse analysis Is the study of language in text and conversation. Is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. Discourse Analysis works with Utterances not independent sentences. Discourse Analysis involves real text not invented, constructed and artificial text.
  16. 16. Approaches to Discourse analysis
  17. 17. Uses of Discourse analysis • Discourse analysis is the study of the ways in which language is used in text and contexts, developed in the 1970s, discourse analysis “concerns itself with the use of language in a running discourse, continued over a number of sentences and involving the interaction of speaker (or writer) and auditor (or reader) in a specific situational context, and within a framework of social and cultural conventions” (M.H. Abrams and G.G. Harpham, A Glossary of Literary Terms, 2005).
  18. 18. Uses of Discourse analysis Discourse analysis is sometimes defined as the analysis of language “beyond the sentence”. Discourse analysis looks not only at the basic level of what is said, but takes into consideration the surrounding social and historical contexts. Discourse analysis is useful tool for studying the political meanings that inform written and spoken text.
  19. 19. Uses of Discourse analysis Discourse analysis is used at the start of a discussion to foreground the topic under discussion and identify it as important to the speaker. Discourse analysis not only study language use “beyond the sentence boundary” but also prefer to analyze “naturally occurring” language use, and not invented examples.
  20. 20. Advantages of Discourse analysis Discourse can be characterized as a way of approaching and thinking about the problem. Discourse analysis can provide a positive social psychological critique of any phenomenon under the gaze of the researcher. Discourse analysis has a relevance and practical application at any given time, in any given place, and for any given people: discourse analysis is context specific.
  21. 21. Advantages of Discourse analysis Discourse analysis may be used for a variety of reasons. Discourse analysis will enable to reveal the hidden motivation behind a text or behind of research to interpret that text. Discourse analysis aims at allowing us to view the problem from a higher stance and to gain a comprehensive view of the problem.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of Discourse analysis One limitation of discourse analysis is that the array of options available through the various traditions can render issues of methodology problematic, as each tradition has its own epistemological position, concepts, procedures, and a particular understanding of discourse and discourse analysis. Discourse analysis doesn't provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research.
  23. 23. Disadvantages of Discourse analysis Discourse analysis is nothing more than a deconstructive reading and interpretation of problem or text Discourse analysis doesn’t provide absolute answers to specific problem. Once more, the disadvantages to discourse analysis are specific to each tradition, but generally, proponents of discourse analysis believe that meaning is never fixed and so everything is always open to interpretation and negotiation.
  24. 24. On your opinion ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ What is differences between Content analysis and Discourse analysis ?
  25. 25. Differences between Content analysis And Discourse analysis
  26. 26. Topic content discourse ontology Realist - assumes that an independent reality exists Constructionist - assumes that reality is socially constructed Epistemology Meaning is fixed and reflects reality in ways that can be ascertained through the use of scientific methods Meaning is fluid and constructs reality in ways that can be posited through the use of interpretive methods Data source Textual content in comparison to other texts, for example over time Textual meaning, usually in relation to other texts, as well as practices of production, dissemination, and consumption،
  27. 27. Topic content discourse method Quantitative Qualitative (although can involve counting Categories Analytical categories taken for granted and data allocated to them Exploration of how participants actively construct categories Inductive / Deductive Deductive Inductive Subjectivity/ Objectivity Objective Subjective
  28. 28. Topic content discourse Role of context Does not necessarily link text to context Can only understand texts in discursive context Reliability Formal measures of interceder reliability are crucial for measurement purposes; differences in interpretation are problematic and risk nullifying any results Formal measures of reliability are not a factor although coding is still justified according to academic norms; differences in interpretation are not a problem and may, in fact, be a source of data
  29. 29. Topic content discourse Validity Validity is in the form of accuracy and precision i.e., demonstrating that patterns in the content of texts are accurately measured and reflect reality Validity in the form of “performativity” i.e. demonstrating a plausible case that patterns in the meaning of texts are constitutive of reality in some way ..، Reflexivity Not necessarily high - author simply reports on objective findings Necessarily high - author is part of the process whereby meaning is constructed.
  30. 30.  Radwa Hamdy Salah

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