Define drug administration.
Mention types of drug administration.
Explain the indications for each route of drug
Advantages and disadvantages of each route.
List the five rights to ensure proper drug
Discuss important information concerning
medication to assess from the patient on admission
and before medication administration.
This is the process of giving out
medication to the patient in order to
treat or prevent disease or complication.
A drug is any substance that alters
physiologic function with the potential
for affecting health.
A medication is a drug administered for
its therapeutic effects.
Thus all drugs are medications but not
4. ROUTES OF DRUG
Parenteral- intramuscular, intradermal,
intravenous and subcutaneous.
Topical – skin, otic , vagina, rectal,
nasal and ophthalmic.
5. COMPONENTS OF A DRUG
The name of the medication can be written in most settings
using the genetic or trade name. The name should be
clear all the time.
This includes the frequency and strength of the of the dose
e.g. Metronidazole 500mg every 8 hours.
Route of administration
Most medications can be given by several routes e.g. orally
(PO), intravenously (IV),and intramuscularly (IM).
6. COMPONENTS OF A DRUG
A signature of the prescribing officer must
appear below the written order.
7. THE PATIENTS RIGHTS
To be informed of the drugs name,
purpose, action and any possible
To refuse any medication.
To have complete information about the
experimental use of drug and to refuse
or consent to its use.
To receive labelled medications safely.
Not to be given unnecessary
8. MEDICATION ASSESSMENT
To administer medication safely to any
patient, it is important to collect
information during the initial
assessment. This is baseline data but it
should be on going nursing assessment
to determine drug effectiveness and
promptly identification of side effects.
This will also assist in individualized
patient teaching to help ensure patient
compliance with pharmacologic therapy.
9. INFORMATION COLLECTED ON
Important information to elicit from the
patient during the initial interview
includes a medication history , allergies,
medical history and pregnancy lactation
10. ASSESSMENT BEFORE
This allows the nurse to see which
medication has been used most
recently and whether it is time for the
medication to be administered . This
prevents incidences whereby a drug is
administered at the wrong time.
Diet and fluid orders.
A patient may have fluids and food
withheld in preparation for surgery or a
But if patient is on medication which
cannot be stopped abruptly, like
antihypertensives , they have to take
them with small sips of water.
If a diabetic patient is on NPO the
physician should be contacted because
of the need to adjust or withhold the
medication. Patients blood glucose
levels are checked regularly and if
-Check for the ability to of the patient by giving
the patient a sip of water to swallow aswallow
nd if he does not cough or chock then he can
take medication orally.
-Gastrointestinal motility should be assessed
too because a dysfuntional gastrointestinal
system affects drug absorption.
13. -Check if the patient has enough muscle mass to
tolerate the medication because lean muscles can
result into poor absorption of medication as they are
injected in the subcutaneous muscles.
-check for adequate venous access and the
temperature, redness, swelling and pain at the
- Vital signs should be checked for medication requiring
this e.g. digitalis which require a heart rate of not
less than 60 beats per minute because they slow
the heart beat.
Assessment of knowledge and
This ensures that the patient takes the
medication with knowledge of the
purpose and side effects of the
15. FIVE RIGHTS IN MEDICATION
Each time a medication is administered it
is important to make sure that the right
patient , is given the right medication in
the right dose by the right route at the
1. Right patient
medication has to be given to the patient
for whom it is intended. The patient
should tell you their name and you
check on the treatment chart.
3. Right dosage.
Giving the dose that was ordered for the
4. Right route.
Medication is given by the ordered route
is safe and appropriate for the individual
5. Right time..
Giving the medication at the time it is
This is very important because it avoids
medication errors like repeatition . The
time when the drug was given should be
indicate against the signature. If
medication was not given for some
reasons it should be indicated on the
chart e.g. NPO. For drugs like insulin
injections the site too should be
indicated. The therapeutic and side
effects of the medication should be
18. ROUTES OF MEDICATION
Medication that are given by mouth are
designe dto be swallowed(oral route), to
be held under the tongue until they
1. Provide a safe, effective, economical
route for administering medications.
2. Provides a sustained drug action with
Review the order considering the five
Assess patients allergy history .
Assess patient ability to take oral
- Level of consciousness,
- Presence of swallow reflex.
- Symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
-identify any pre administration
assessment of pulse, Bp, that must be
- Check that correct medication and
dosage is available at the time
Treatment charts/ kardex.
Wash hands to reduce transfer of
microorganisms from hand to
Arrange medication charts next to
medication trays and cups. This saves
time and reduces chances of errors.
Prepare medications for only one
patient at a time to prevent errors during
Ask patient to state their name and
compare name on medication card or
record with name the patient is
Complete any preadministration
assessment e.g. (Bp) required by
specific medication to determine if
medication can be given at that time.
Expain the purpose of the medication to
patient, in accordance with patients
Dispose of soiled supplies and wash
Record time medication was
administered and any pre-
administration assessment data which
The giving of medication that are given
by injection or infusion through
subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous(IV).
Treatment of disease / conditions
whereby the appropriate is the
26. ADVANTAGES AND
Medication given through the parenteral
route usually are absorbed more
completely and have a faster onset of
action than other routes .
The risk for infection is high because the
skin barrier is bypassed, if aseptic
techniques are not used when preparing
and administering parenteral medication.
Complications may occur if parenteral
medications are not given tissue site or
Vials – containers that hold one or two
dose of medication. Medication that are
in powder form come with a diluent.
Ampules – thin walled glass container
that hold a single dose of a liquid
medication. Before it is opened all
medication should be moved to the
ampule base by gently tapping the top
of the ampule with a finger. To open the
ampule the nurse holds an alcohol pad
Syringes – for drawing and
administration of medication part :
plunger, barrel, needle and needle
29. INTRADERMAL INJECTIONS
Given into the dermis (the layer of
tissue located underneath the skin
surface). A small needle and a 1ml
syringe is mostly used.
The skin is cleansed using alcohol wipe.
The syring is held with the level of the
needle up almost parallel to the skin .
Small volumes of medication are
injected slowly e.g. 0.25mls or less.
30. SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION
Injections are given into the
subcutaneous tissue the layer of fat
located below the dermis and above
Absorption is usually slow, sustained
and completely. Small sized syringe and
Common sites : upper arm, upper back,
abdomen, buttocks and thigh.
Injection are given into the muscle layer
, beneath the dermis and subcutaneous
Absorption is at an intermediate rate,
slower than IV administration and more
rapid than SC administration.
A larger volume of medication is given .
Site choices are influenced by the age,
medication to be given , amount and
Administer medication deeply into
muscle tissue, without injury to the
Administer a medication with absorption
and onset of action quicker than the oral
route and that may be irritating to the
Review patients medical history,
medication history and allergy status.
Assess for contraindications to receiving
Assess for anxiety related to fear of
Review chart for documentation of
previous injection sites, if it’s a patient
receiving multiple injections.
Treatment charts/ order or kardex.
Antiseptic swabs .
Vials or ampule.
1. Check medication order.
2. Wash hands.
3. Assemble needle and syringe.
4. Remove needle guard.
Rotate vial between palms to disperse
Cleanse top of medication vial with
36. Procedure cont..
Insert needle into vial and inject the air.
Injected air prevents creation of negative
pressure within the vial so that medication
is easily withdrawn.
Invert vial and withdraw the desired
volume of medication.
Flick upper stem of the ampule with finger
Insert needle into ampule and withdraw
required dosage of medication.
Dispose of ampule in appropriate
container to prevent broken glass from
cutting other health care workers.
7. Cover needle with guard.
8. If medication is known to be irritating to
subcutaneous tissues replace needle
after withdrawing medication. To
9. Select appropriate injection site by
inspecting muscle size and integrity .
Consider volume of medication to be
injected. Larger muscles can absorb larger
volumes of medication.
10. Assist patient to a comfortable position
and expose only the area to be injected.
Don gloves especially on non dominant
hand. This promotes comfort and privacy.
Maintains universal precautions if blood
12. Cleanse the site with antiseptic swab , wiping
from center of site and rotating outwards.
13. Remove needle cover.
14. Expel air bubbles from syringe .
15. Hold syringe between thumb and forefinger
of dominant hand (like a dart).
16. Spread skin at the side with non dominant
hand. This facilitates needle insertion by
firming skin surface and flattens tissues so
needle penetrates into muscle.
17. Insert needle quickly at a 90 degrees angle
this enables needle to reach deep muscle layer .
Rapid needle insertion minimizes patient
18. Stabilize syringe barrel by grassing with non
dominant hand . Aspirate slowly by pulling
back the plunger with dominant hand . If no
blood appears inject medication slowly. If
blood appears in the syringe, remove needle
and dispose of syringe and prepare new
medication. Blood in a syringe indicates
20. Gently massage site, this stimulates
local circulation and speeds drug
21. Do not recap needle , dispose of
equipment in proper reception to protect
nurses and health care workers from
accidental needle injury.
22. Wash hands.
23. Record medication and patient
42. INTRAVENOUS PUSH
1. Verify medication card against the
written doctor’s prescription.
2. Explain procedure to reassure patient
and significant other before
3. Do hand hygiene before and after the
procedure(use gloves especially for
4. Check patency and other reaction
signs or swelling, redness, phlebitis etc
43. 6. Disinfect injection port of the diluent,
vial or ampule as appropriate.
7. Aspirate right amount of diluent for the
drug if the drug needs to be diluted.
8. Aspirate the right dose and disinfect the
port of the IV administration set.
9. Close the roller clamp of the IV tubing
from the bottle and push IV drug
aseptically and slowly or according to
10. Open the intravenous fluids and let it
run to flush medicine given .
11. Regulate rate of IV fluids infusion as
12. Reassure patient and observe for
signs and symptoms of adverse drug