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Specimen collection

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Specimen collection

  1. 1. SPECIMEN COLLECTION BY Nelson Munthali Dip/RN
  2. 2. BROAD OBJECTIVE To be able to correctly collect specimen, put the specimen in the right container and transport specimen to the laboratory correctly and at the right time .
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Quality laboratory results begin with correct and compete collection. Examples include : blood, sputum urine, deep specimen, feces, cervical, eye, ear etc.
  4. 4. BLOOD SPECIMEN-SKINPUCTURES Skin punctures are performed when small quantities of capillary blood are needed for analysis or when the client has poor veins. Capillary puncture is also commonly performed for blood glucose analysis. The common sites for capillary puncture are the :- Finger tip – the inner aspect of palmer
  5. 5. Expected outcomes An adequate blood specimen will be obtained. The client will suffer minimal during the specimen collection. The specimen will be collected and stores in a manner compatible with the ordered tests.
  6. 6. EQUIPMENT NEEDED Antiseptic. Collection tubes. Sterile cotton wool swabs. Sterile lancet. Nonsterile gloves. Hand towel or absorbent pad. Slides.
  7. 7. Implementation Wash hands, to reduce transmission of microorganisms. Check clients identification band if appropriate to ensure correct client. Explain procedure to client to allay anxiety and encourages cooperation. Prepare supplies:- Open sterile packages.- Label specimen collection tubes.
  8. 8. - Place in easy reach to ensure efficiency. Apply gloves to decrease health care provider`s exposure to blood borne organisms. Select site: lateral aspect of fingertips in adults or children to avoid damage to nerve endings and calloused areas of the skin. Place the hand or heel in a dependent
  9. 9.  Place hand towel or absorbent pad under the extremities to prevents soiling the bed linen . Cleanse punctures site with an antiseptic and allow to dry to reduce skin surface bacteria. With nondominant hand, apply gentle milking pressure above or around the puncture site, do not touch puncture site . This increases blood to puncture site and maintain asepsis.
  10. 10.  Wipe off the first drop of blood with sterile gauge , allow the blood to flow freely . First drop may contain a large amount of serous fluid, which could affect results. Pressure at the puncture site can cause hemolysis. Collect the blood into tube, if a platelet count is to be collected, obtain this specimen first. Allows blood collection,
  11. 11.  Apply pressure to the puncture site with a sterile gauze to control bleeding. Place contaminated articles into a sharps container to reduce risk for needle stick injuries. Remove gloves, wash hands to reduce transmission of microorganisms. Document in the file the date, time and type of sample taken.
  12. 12. COLLECTING BLOOD SAMPLEFROM A VEIN Apply tourniquet, clean area, prick the vein and if blood is coming out you are in the vein. Draw the amount needed for the ordered test and release the tourniquet . Apply pressure with a dry swab after withdrawing the needle to prevent bleeding from the punctured site. Flush the syringe in chlorine 0.5% three
  13. 13.  Observe and leave the patient comfortably. Dispose the equipment safely.
  14. 14. URINE SPECIMEN Urine specimen remains an important tool for clinical diagnosis. A correct urine result is influenced by the collection method, timing and handling. The laboratory test ordered determines the type of container to be used for collecting a specimen.
  15. 15. TYPES OF COLLECTIONLaboratory urine specimens are classified by the type of collection conducted or by the collection procedure used to obtain the specimen. RANDOM SPECIMENThis is the specimen most commonly sent to the laboratory for analysis, primarily because it is the easiest to obtain and is readily available. This specimen is usually submitted for urinalysis and microscopy analysis. Although there are no specific
  16. 16. FIRST MORNING SPECIMENThis is the specimen of choice for urinalysis and microscopic analysis, since the urine is generally more concentrated due to the length of time urine is allowed to remain in the bladder and , therefore, contains relatively higher levels of cellular elements and analytes such as protein, if present.
  17. 17. NOTE: any urine that is voided from the bladder during the eight hour collection period is pooled and refrigerated, so that a true 8hour specimen is obtained. MIDSTREM CLEAN CATCH SPECIMENThis is the preferred type of specimen for culture and sensitivity testing because of the reduced incidence of cellular and microbial contamination. The patient
  18. 18. the opportunities for contaminants to enter into the urine stream. The urine midstream is then collected into a clean container, (any excess urine should be voided into the toilet). This method of collection can be conducted at any time of day or night. TIMED COLLECTION SPECIMENAmong the most commonly performed
  19. 19. CATHETER COLLECTION SPECIMEN.This assisted procedure is conducted when a patient is bedridden or cannot urinate independently. The healthcare provider inserts a Foley catheter into the bladder through the urethra to collect the urine specimen . Specimen may as well be collected through an existing Foley catheter.
  20. 20. DEEP SPECIMENCOLLECTION. Specimens for wound, lesion, abscess drainage, effusions, exudates, boils, incisions or ulcerations are best collected by aspirating with a syringe and needle. Using aseptic technique , clean the area in and over the lesions with sterile saline and sterile gauze prior to collection. Debride skin lesions, removing the crust and any purulent exudates with the moistened gauze. Explore the base of the
  21. 21.  Since delay and exposure to oxygen can kill these organisms, prompt receipt in the laboratory is paramount. Best results are obtained for cultures when specimen is collected from the area closest to the normal tissue after removal of debris the dried pus.
  22. 22. FECES SPECIMEN Collect feces specimens in containers provided by the laboratory. Specimen should be well covered and labeled. For culture only or both culture and parasite examination the specimen must be returned to the laboratory within one hour of collection. If more than one specimen has been ordered they should be collected on
  23. 23. SPUTUM SPECIMEN Preferably, the specimen should be a first morning collection. If more than one specimen is collected, they should be obtained one per day on consecutive mornings. To properly collect a sputum specimen, ask the patient to:i. Remove the container from the package and lift the top hinged
  24. 24. - Do not spit into the container as saliva and postnasal secretions are not the maternal .- Close the lid, label the specimen.- Bring the specimen to the clinical laboratory as soon as possible for best results.- If there is a delay in transport, refrigerate specimen. Patients name, ID
  25. 25. GENITAL SPECIMEN Patients should not use or be exposed to vaginal medications for 24hours prior to collection. In female – insert swabs slowly into vaginal opening. For endocervical collections remove excess mucus from the endocervix and discard it. Rotate swab vigorously for 30seconds, allowing absorption to occur.
  26. 26. swab comes into contact with all urethral surfaces. Allow swab to remain inserted for 2-3 seconds.Replace the swabs in the tube label and deliver to laboratory promptly .CERVICAL SMEARIt’s a screening test that helps a doctor diagnose and prevent cervical cancer in women. This test is also know as a
  27. 27. TAWONGA