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IS there a
ACTIONS ON JAPAN
• IT MUST BE
• IT CONTINUE
NATURE OF RADIATIONS:
Alpha (α) and Beta (β) radiation, consisting of electrons,. Gamma (γ)
radiation, consisting of energetic photons, is eventually absorbed as it penetrates a
Neutron (n) radiation consists of free neutrons that are blocked using light
elements, like hydrogen, which slow and/or capture them. cosmic rays
that consist of energetic charged nuclei like protons, helium nuclei, and
high-charged nuclei called HZE ions.
MAJOR PART OF NUCLEAR:
Major part of
Radon-222 is a
gas produced by
the decay of
Both are a part
of the natural
is the number
one cause of
and, overall, the
SOME BASIC WAYS TO LIMIT EXPLOSURE:
• : Radiation intensity decreases sharply with distance, according
to an inverse-square law (in an absolute vacuum).[Distance
• people who are exposed to radiation in addition to natural
background radiation, limiting or minimizing the exposure time will
reduce the dose from the radiation source.
• Air or skin can be sufficient to substantially attenuate low-energy
alpha and beta radiation.
• Some radioactive materials are stored or handled underwater or
by remote control in rooms constructed of thick concrete or lined
First nuclear age : (1945-67)
one of the major incidents during world
Atomic bombings of hiroshima and nagasaki:
a result of the war between two big powers of the world,turns
the whole world
though the war came to an end in europe, japan countinued the
war without surrendering
so the president truman of america, premier atlee of england
where decided to drop a bomb
the crew used pilotless planes and rockets that could not be seen
the bomb used here is b-29
HISTORY ABOUT NUCLEAR AGE
the bomb was set to explode together with chemical reactions
uranium triggers the action, where it strikes on nuclear to start sustainable nuclear chain
the states man, who
Decide to bomb
Through “enola gay”
the bomb made to
fall from 31,000 feet
and it was set to
explode after falling
it done with the help of seven boeing helicopters
on 6th august,1945 during the day time a B-29 heavy bomber flying at high altitude dropped the
first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
more than 4 square miles gets devasted
nearly 90,000 to 1,66,000 peoples where killed by this cruel incident
on 9th august,1945 an another
B-29 dropped in the industrial
section of the city Nagasaki.
it affects the entire nation
on 10th august, japanese govt.
requested,that it be permitted to
Surrender under the terms of,
Potsdam declaration of july26th.
NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTION:
triggers the action
Together with the
nuclei starts the
Releases enormous heat
and continuos of energy
DAMAGES AND INJURIES:
nearly 60 to 80,000 peoples where killed in nagasaki.
the extended radiation caused innumerable deaths and serious physical,emotional and
genetic problems which where faced by many generations.
15-20% where died due to sickness,and 20-30%of to flashburns,50-60% of to other
a study states that from 1950 – 2000, 46% of leukemia deaths and 11% of solid cancer
deaths among the bomb survivors
“as a human being, I would not felt happy about it.
if I where mr.Truman I would not have dropped the bomb”
Japanese face the situation with courage and made japan one of the leading countries of the
SECOND NUCLEAR AGE: (1968-92)
second nuclear age plays a big role in nuclear power plant accidents.one of the most popular
nuclear power plant accident is, „Chernobyl disaster‟.
Chernobyl disaster on 1986:
Chernobyl disaster was catastrophic
Nuclear accident occurred on april26,1986
At Chernobyl power plant,Ukraine.
the thing which led to accident is,
the chain reaction went out of control.
Chernobyl power plant is located in
The disaster began during a systems
test on Saturday, 26 April 1986 at reactor
number four of the Chernobyl plant,
which is near the city of and in pripyat proximity to the administrative border with Belarus and
the dnieper river.
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and
substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident.
The Union of Concerned scientists estimates that, among the hundreds of millions of
people living in broader geographical areas, there will be 50,000 excess cancer cases
resulting in 25,000 excess cancer deaths
The chain reaction went out of
There was A sudden
unexpected power surge
When emergency shut down
attempted,a large power output
is occurred,which lead to the
reactor vessel and steam
This exposed graphite
moderator,causes it to ignite.
• A sudden
• When the chain
power output is
• the output
this led the
According to observers outside Unit 4, burning lumps of material and sparks shot into
the air above the reactor. Some of them fell on to the roof of the machine hall and
started a fire.
About 25 percent of the red-hot graphite blocks and overheated material from the fuel
channels was ejected. ...Parts of the graphite blocks and fuel channels were out of the
As a result of the damage to the building an airflow through the core was established
by the high temperature of the core. The air ignited the hot graphite and started a
the image shows the ejected
Graphite From the power plant
Four hundred times more radioactive material
was released than had been by the atomic bombing
of Hiroshima. The disaster
released 1/100 to 1/1000 of the
total amount of radioactivity
released by nuclear weapons testing.
Approximately 100,000 km² of land
was significantly contaminated
nearly 350 animals were born with gross deformities such as missing
or extra limbs, missing eyes, heads or
ribs, or deformed skulls; in comparison,
only three abnormal births had been
registered in the five years prior.
This was due to residual radioactivity from Chernobyl in the plants they graze on in
the wild during the summer. The after-effects of Chernobyl were expected to be seen
for a further 100 years, although the severity of the effects would decline over that
after the accident, four square
kilometers gets totally contaminated
the image shows that a pine forest
directly downwind of the reactor,
turns wine reddish brown and died.
According to the Union of Concerned
Scientists the number of excess cancer
deaths worldwide (including all contaminated areas) is approximately 27,000.
An area extending 19 miles (31 km) in all directions from the plant is known as the
"zone of alienation." It is largely uninhabited, except for a few residents who have
refused to leave. The area has largely reverted to forest.
the image shows about
the zone of alietnaion
THIRD NUCLEAR AGE:1992- 1
Fukushima disaster on japan
A Massive disaster caused by the
ear earth quake.
Eleven reactors at four sites near Japan‟s north east coast where shutdown per seismic
Five reactors at Fukushima declared emergencies due to loss of emergency backup
this accident causes the nuclear contamination, in the surrounding environment
Sreening is being done and people are subjected to proper medical care
Initially only three workers where affected by this radiation
Japan handled the situation in more effective and amazing way
THIS ACCIDENT SPOILS
PEOPLE LIVING IN
SUFFERED FOT FOOD
AS PER THE SEISMIC
GROWN IN THAT AREA
IS BANNED FOR SALE
IS THERE A CLEAN FUTURE??
Though the nuclear power plants are essential one, it is a boon to our society. Our
govrnment have to take much risk on this matter.
although power plants are clean it may cause harm to our precious environment.
we should use and manage our the natural resources wisely.
“production of energy witout polluting will be much thank full for the people
arround power plants”