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HPE ATP. Cloud. Лекция 2. BladeSystem and Server Virtualization.pptx

  1. Lecture 2 1 BladeSystem and Server Virtualization
  2. 2 Objectives 1. HP BladeSystem implementation 2. Storage Virtualization 3. BladeSystem Interconnects 3. Server Virtualization
  3. 3 BladeSystem and Server Virtualization 1. HP BladeSystem implementation
  4. 4 HP BladeSystem BladeSystem is a line of blade server machines from Hewlett Packard that was introduced in October 2004. The BladeSystem forms part of the HP Converged Systems, which use a common converged infrastructure architecture for server, storage, and networking products. Designed for enterprise installations of 100 to more than 1,000 Virtual machines, the HP ConvergedSystem is configured with BladeSystem servers. When managing a software-defined data center, a System administrator can perform automated lifecycle management for BladeSystems. Blades allow a company to simplify its entire infrastructure through consolidation, integration, and unified management.
  5. 5 HP BladeSystem
  6. • Consolidate the data center • Migrate from an old data center into a bladed one • Upgrade the data center infrastructure to a more effective solution • Reduce costs • Adapt to future changes • Save energy • Manage the data center A BladeSystem offers redundancy for parts and paths that can fail, as wellas reliability for any nonredundant components. An HP BladeSystem solution can help customers operate more efficiently, grow their business, and control IT infrastructure costs. The HP BladeSystem solution can help a business: 6 BladeSystem Advantages
  7. The HP BladeSystem solution begins with an enclosure that holds the various hardware elements. The enclosure has built‐in resources that result in a modular, self‐tuning unit with built‐in intelligence. All blades in an enclosure connect to a common midplane, allowing administrators to centrally monitor and manage them. HP BladeSystem enclosures are flexible and scalable. You can add server blades, storage blades, and interconnects as requirements evolve. We will look first at the two types of BladeSystem enclosures. Next, we will overview common server blades. Finally, we will review two other components: storage blades and interconnects. 7 BladeSystem components
  8. 8 Blade Enclosures • c7000 enclosure • c3000 enclosure There are two types of rack‐mount BladeSystem enclosures:
  9. 9 Blade c7000 Enclosures
  10. 10 HP BladeSystem
  11. 11 Blade c3000 Enclosures
  12. c7000 c3000 Device bays 16 8 Interconnect bays 8 4 Power supplies Up to 6 x 960W/2250W Output Up to 6 x 2400W Output Up to 6 x 800/900/1200W PSU Input power HP 2250W Single Phase AC 100 - 120V 200 - 240V HP 2400W Single Phase AC 200 - 240V Three Phase NA/JPN 200 - 208V Delta Three Phase International 380 - 415V Wye Worldwide -48V DC Single Phase AC 100 - 120V 200 - 208V -48V DC Cooling Up to 10 fans Up to 6 fans 12 c3000 & c7000 Enclosures
  13. 13 Onboard Administrator Device bays are located in the front of the enclosure, as shown in Figure. The Onboard Administrator HP Insight Display, which provides a menu‐driven interface for initial configuration and troubleshooting, is also located on the front of the enclosure.
  14. 14 Onboard Administrator Interconnect bays, power supplies, and fans are located in the rear of the enclosure. There is also an optional KVM (keyboard video mouse) switch connector and connectors for iLO (Integrated Lights-Out) and Onboard Administrator.
  15. 15 Insight Display HP Insight Display is a standard component of the c3000 and c7000 enclosures. It provides an interface that can be used for initial enclosure configuration, but it is also a valuable tool during the troubleshooting process. If a problem occurs, the display changes color and blinks to get the attention of an administrator. The Insight Display can even be used to upgrade the Onboard Administrator firmware. USB Key Menu allows an administrator to update OA firmware or to save or restore the OA configuration when using a USB stick plugged into the USB port on an OA module.
  16. 16 Insight Display As shown in Figure above, the following menus are available to an administrator standing in front of the blade enclosure: • Displays the current condition of the enclosure. Health Summary • Enables configuration of the enclosure, including Power Mode, Power Limit, Dynamic Power, IP addresses for OA modules, enclosure name, and rack name. It is also used for connecting a DVD drive to the blades and setting the lockout PIN. Enclosure Settings • Displays the current enclosure configuration. Enclosure Info • Presents basic information about the server blade configuration and port mapping. Blade or Port Info
  17. 17 Insight Display • Turns on the enclosure identification LED. When this is selected, the display background color changes to blue, and a blue LED is visible at the rear of the enclosure. Turn Enclosure UID on • Displays six lines of text, each containing a maximum of 16 characters. This screen can be used to display contact information or other important information for users working on‐site with the enclosure. View User Note • Enables communication between the person standing in front of the enclosure and the administrator managing the enclosure through the Onboard Administrator. Chat Mode • Allows an administrator to update OA firmware or to save or restore the OA configuration when using a USB stick plugged into the USB port on an OA module. USB Key Menu
  18. 18 Onboard Administrator The OA allows you to view information about the enclosure and to manage various enclosure, blade, and interconnect configuration parameters. When the enclosure is connected to a management network, you can access the OA through a browser or an SSH connection. Figure shows the login screen that you see when you access the OA through a browser.
  19. 19 Onboard Administrator The first time that you log on, the Welcome screen of the First Time Setup Wizard is displayed, as shown in Figure. The wizard guides you through the initial configuration of key enclosure and enclosure management settings.
  20. 20 Onboard Administrator
  21. 21 Onboard Administrator The Enclosure Selection screen shows the enclosures detected by the wizard. The Configuration Management screen allows you to apply a saved configuration to the enclosure. The Rack and Enclosure Settings screen allows you to enter identification information for the enclosure and configure the time. The Administrator Account Setup screen allows you to change the password for the Administrator account and associate it with a full name and contact information. The Local User Accounts screen allows you to create up to 30 user accounts that can be granted or denied access to manage specific devices. Enclosure Bay IPAddressing (EBIPA). To be accessed on the network, a device or interconnect needs to have IP configuration settings, and those settings must be properly configured.
  22. 22 Onboard Administrator The Directory Groups screen allows you create LDAP groups that you can use to assign access. The Directory Settings screen allows you to identify the IP address and port used to access the LDAP server. The Onboard Administrator Network Settings screen allows you to determine whether the OA is accessed by a static IP address or an IP address assigned through DHCP. By using the SNMP Settings screen you can forward alerts to the specified SNMP alert destinations from the enclosure. You need to enter the host and the community string for each destination. The Power Management screen allows you to configure power management settings.
  23. A server blade is basically a server on a card, a single motherboard that contains a full computer system, including one or more processors, memory, network connections, and associated electronics. •Full-height (8U) •Half-height (4U) Server blades are available in two sizes with different memory densities: ( U – Unit; 44,45 мм or 1,75’ ) Full‐height blades have more processing power, storage capacity, and memory than half‐height server blades. Full‐height server blades are recommended for enclosures that run mission‐critical services. 23 Server Blades
  24. 24 HP ProLiant BL4xxc Gen8 Series HP ProLiant BL420c Gen8 HP ProLiant BL465c Gen8 HP ProLiant BL460c Gen8 Processor family Intel Xeon E5-2470 AMD Opteron 6380 Intel® Xeon® E5- 2600 Number of processors 1 or 2 1or 2 1 or 2 Processor cores available 4 or 6 or 8 4 or 8 or 12 or 16 2, 4, 6 or 8 Memory slots 12 slots DIMM 16 slots DIMM 16 slots DIMM Memory type DDR3 LRDIMM, RDIMM, LVDIMM or UDIMM DDR3 RDIMM, LRDIMM or UDIMMDIMM DDR3 LRDIMM, RDIMM, VDIMM, UDIMM Memory 384 ГБ 512 ГБ 512 ГБ Network controller FlexFabric 554FLB FlexFabric 10 FlexFabric 10 Internal Storage 2 x 1.2 TB (SFF SAS/SATA/SSD) 2 x 1.2 TB (SFF SAS/SATA/SSD) 2 x 1.2 TB (SFF SAS/SATA/SSD) Infrastructure management iLO, Insight Control iLO, Insight Control iLO (Standard)
  25. 25 HP ProLiant BL4xxc Gen8 Series HP ProLiant BL420c Gen8 HP ProLiant BL465c Gen8 HP ProLiant BL460c Gen8
  26. 26 HP ProLiant BL4xxc Gen9 Series HP ProLiant BL460c Gen9 Processor family Intel® Xeon® E5-2690v3 v4 Series Number of processors 2 Processor cores available 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 ,22 Memory slots 16 slots DIMM Memory type DDR3 LRDIMM, RDIMM, LVDIMM, UDIMM Memory 512 ГБ Network controller One 20Gb 2-port FlexFabric FLB Internal Storage 2 x 2 TB (SFF SAS/SATA/SSD) Infrastructure management HP iLO (Firmware: HP iLO Management)
  27. 27 HP ProLiant BL4xxc Gen10 Series HP ProLiant BL460c Gen10 Processor family Intel® Xeon® Scalable 8100, 8200 Series Number of processors 2 Processor cores available 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26 Memory slots 16 slots DIMM Memory type DDR3 LRDIMM, RDIMM, LVDIMM, UDIMM Memory 2 ТБ Network controller One 20Gb 2-port FlexFabric FLB Internal Storage 2 x 3,84 TB (SFF SAS/SATA/SSD) Infrastructure management HP iLO
  28. 28 BladeSystem and Server Virtualization 2. Storage Virtualization
  29. • Storage virtualization • Server virtualization • Client virtualization • Network virtualization Virtualization is a proven technology that is rapidly transforming the IT landscape and fundamentally changing the way that people compute. Virtualization encompasses four areas: 29 Virtualization
  30. 30 Storage virtualization Almost everything in business and data center operations comes down to information. This includes how information is served to applications and users, how information is secured to reduce risk, and how you can extract more value from the information. Companies are increasingly concerned about optimizing data storage requirements to ensure that data is accessible when it needs to be and protected against device failure, without wasting valuable storage capacity. Storage virtualization allows you to create pools of storage, which you can then allocate as required. There are two types of storage virtualization: Storage Area Network (SAN) and Network Attached Storage (NAS).
  31. One of the benefits of a blade solution is that storage can be integrated within the device and shared by the blades in the enclosure, or dedicated to a specific blade. HP BladeSystem c‐Class enclosures support the following types of storage blades: • Direct-attached storage blade • NAS (Network Attached Storage) storage blades • EVA (Enterprise Virtual Array) for BladeSystem SAN (Storage Area Network) storage • Tape blades 31 Storage Blades
  32. Nearly every server requires a connection to one or more networks. BladeSystem supports network connectivity through: • Pass‐thru • Blade switches • HP Virtual Connect 32 Storage Interconnects • A BladeSystem technology that simplifies the addition of server blades by virtualizing server connections to LANs and SANs. HP Virtual Connect
  33. 33 Storage Area Network (SAN) A Storage Area Network (SAN) provides block‐level sharing of storage between multiple computer systems. • A volume that provides raw storage capacity. Various operating systems can implement their file system on top of block-level storage. Data is written to and read from the storage device by referencing a block address. Block-level storage In a SAN, a large number of disk drives are pooled together in storage arrays and are simultaneously accessed by multiple computer systems over a dedicated network.
  34. 34 Storage Area Network (SAN) The colors show that certain servers have access to certain disks, and in some cases, only certain portions of certain disks. It is possible for entire disks to be dedicated to servers, or only parts of disks to be dedicated to servers. The above illustration is intentionally oversimplified. We will discuss this topic in more detail shortly. Although the storage is accessed over a dedicated network and shared by multiple computers, the operating system perceives the storage as if it is locally attached. This allows the operating system to access the storage the same way that it accesses Direct Attached Storage (DAS).
  35. 35 Storage Area Network (SAN) Three major protocols are available for SANs: • Fibre Channel (FC) • Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) • iSCSI • A protocol used to transport SCSI commands over FC networks. Fibre Channel (FC) • Pronounced “eye-scuz-ee.” The iSCSI protocol carries SCSI traffic over traditional TCP/IP networks, making it very flexible and relatively cheap to deploy. Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) • A protocol used to send SCSI commands over the same 10 Gbps Ethernet network used for TCP/IP networking, but without the TCP/IP overhead. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)
  36. 36 Network Attached Storage (NAS) Network-attached storage (NAS) is dedicated file storage that enables multiple users and heterogeneous client devices to retrieve data from centralized disk capacity. Users on a local area network (LAN) access the shared storage via a standard Ethernet connection. NAS devices typically do not have a keyboard or display and are configured and managed with a browser-based utility. Each NAS resides on the LAN as an independent network node, defined by its own unique Internet Protocol (IP) address. What most characterizes NAS is ease of access, high capacity and fairly low cost. NAS devices provide infrastructure to consolidate storage in one place and to support tasks, such as archiving and backup, and a cloud tier.
  37. 37 Network Attached Storage (NAS)
  38. 38 Network Attached Storage (NAS) NAS is conceptually very similar to SAN, in that a large number of disk drives are pooled together in storage arrays and are accessed by multiple computer systems. NAS arrays also provide advanced features similar to those provided by SAN storage arrays, including: • Replication • Cloning/Snapshots • RAID • Multiple drive types • Advanced data resiliency (RAID)
  39. 39 Network Attached Storage (NAS) One of the major differences between NAS and SAN is that NAS does not usually have a dedicated storage network. Instead, computer systems usually access NAS storage over the shared corporate network, the LAN or WAN, using TCP/IP. SAN and NAS systems also use different protocols. NAS provides file-level access and predominantly uses file sharing protocols such as Network File System (NFS) and Common Internet File System (CIFS).
  40. 40 BladeSystem and Server Virtualization 3. BladeSystem Interconnects
  41. 41 BladeSystem Interconnects BladeSystem interconnections play a critical role in implementing convergence technologies between the Ethernet network and storage resources. Three options are supported, with each designed to meet the needs of specific solution scenarios. These include: • An unmanaged direct connection solution. Pass‐thru • A managed solution that is well matched for the process of transitioning to server virtualization. Switch • A solution designed to allow administrators to upgrade, replace, or move server blades within their enclosures without changes being visible to the external LAN and SAN environments. Virtual Connect
  42. 42 Pass-thru A pass‐thru module is designed for those customers who want an unmanaged direct connection between each server blade within the enclosure and an external network device such as a switch or router. A pass‐thru module is considered a good solution for a data center that needs blade enclosures added to an existing network infrastructure. Pass- thru modules are designed for installation directly into the blade enclosure. A pass‐thru module is designed to provide a low‐latency, one‐to‐one connection between each server and the network.
  43. 43 Pass-thru When you install pass‐thru modules as an interconnect option, HP recommends installing Ethernet pass‐thru modules in pairs to ensure redundant uplink paths to the network. Since each server has a minimum of two NICs on each blade, the addition of a second Ethernet pass‐thru module assures a redundant path to the network switch, router, or bridge. With many Ethernet pass‐thru modules, ports are designed to auto‐sense and self‐configure bandwidth operation on a port‐by‐port basis, providing support for a wide variety of network adapters. These ports are also designed to support a non‐blocking architecture to help improve performance.
  44. 44 Pass-thru example The HP 1Gb Ethernet Pass‐Thru Module for BladeSystem c‐Class is a 16‐port Ethernet interconnect that provides a 1:1 nonswitched, nonblocking path between the server and the network. This connectivity is especially useful when nine or more ports are used in an enclosure. The 1Gb Ethernet Pass‐Thru Module delivers 16 internal 1 Gb downlinks and 16 external 1 Gb RJ‐45 copper uplinks. It is designed to fit into a single I/O bay of the c‐Class enclosure. The 1Gb Ethernet Pass‐Thru modules should be installed in pairs to provide redundant uplink paths.
  45. 45 Blade switch Ethernet blade switches are designed for installation in BladeSystem enclosures as a managed solution replacement for existing switches. Ethernet blade switches provide multiple Ethernet downlinks and uplinks. They are designed to support high‐bandwidth applications, such as iSCSI storage, video on demand, and high performance computer clustering. This makes them a preferred solution for data centers that are transitioning to server virtualization or looking to consolidate bandwidth. Ethernet blade switches can act as the interface between blade servers and an external network device. You can create a virtual stack of up to 16 switches with support for single IP address management for the stack.
  46. 46 Blade switch Management Options • Menu interface • Command line interface (CLI) • Web browser interface • ProCurve Manager (PCM) • ProCurve Manager Plus (PCM+) Ethernet blade switches come pre‐configured for immediate use with the HP c‐Class BladeSystem server blade enclosure. The switches support management options that you would expect to see for a switch solution. These include:
  47. • Port security based on 802.1x limits access for unwanted users • MAC address lockout to prevent specific configured MAC addresses from connecting to the network • Secured access through SSH and HTTPS (SSL) • Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) to allow secure file transfer to and from the switch • Support for RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication • Traffic forwarding between VLANs (802.1Q) through IP forwarding In addition to management support, blade switches provide enhanced security over pass‐thru modules. Typical security features include: 47 Blade Switch Typical Security Features
  48. 48 HP 6120G/XG Blade Switch We will now look at the HP 6120G/XG Blade Switch as an example The HP 6120G/XG Blade Switch provides 16 internal 1 Gb downlinks, four 1 Gb external copper uplinks, and two 1 Gb SFP external uplinks, along with three 10 Gb external uplinks and a single 10 Gb internal crossconnect. The 6120G/XG blade switch is ideal for data centers in transition, where a mix of 1 Gb and 10 Gb network connections are required.
  49. HP 6120G/XG Ethernet Blade Switch Front Panel Item Description 1 Port C1 (10Gbe-CX4) 2 Port X1 XFP (10GbE) slot* 3 Port X2 XFP (10GbE) slot* 4 Port S1 SFP (1GbE) slot** 5 Port S2 SFP (1GbE) slot** 6 Console port (USB 2.0 mini-AB connector) 7 Clear button 8 Ports 1–4 (10/100/1000BASE-T) 9 Reset button (recessed) * Supports 10GBASE-SR XFP and 10GBASE-LR XFP pluggable optical transceiver modules ** Supports 1000BASE-T SFP, 1000BASE-SX SFP, and 1000BASE-LX SFP optical transceiver modules 49
  50. 50 Virtual Connect HP Virtual Connect simplifies management in virtualized environments. It is designed to simplify connections to LAN and SAN environments, and in the process, reduce cable requirements and ongoing management overhead.
  51. 51 Virtual Connect Virtual Connect effectively virtualizes server connections. Virtualizing server connections allows server administrators to upgrade, replace, or move server blades within their enclosures without changes being visible to the external LAN and SAN environments. Virtual Connect implements “wire‐once” technology for simplified management between networks and servers. Wire‐once technology can help you add, move, or change servers in minutes, thus saving time and improving agility This greater efficiency is accomplished through tools that work together to manage a virtualized data center, letting you consolidate thousands of VMs onto the single storage system.
  52. 52 Virtual Connect When the LAN and SAN connect to the pool of servers, the server administrator uses a Virtual Connect Manager (VCM) to define a server connection profile for each server. The profile applies to the server bay, and if a blade is swapped out, it applies automatically to the replacement. The connection profile to the LAN and SAN remains constant, even as devices in the BladeSystem enclosure are changed out. Virtual Connect also makes storage solution deployment and management simpler and less expensive. Storage solutions usually include components such as server Host Bus Adapters (HBAs), SAN switches/directors, optical transceivers/cables, and storage systems. Management can be a major concern because of the sheer number of components.
  53. 53 Virtual Connect HP refers to Virtual Connect as LAN‐safe and SAN‐safe. Virtual Connect ports at the enclosure edge look like server connections, so the process is transparent to LAN and SAN. Transparency helps to ensure that Virtual Connect works seamlessly with your external network. Virtual Connect modules supporting Fibre Channel must attach to NPIVcapable SAN switches. Most enterprise‐class SAN switches today support NPIV. Depending on the module, Virtual Connect‐Fibre Channel modules can aggregate up to 255 physical or virtual server HBA ports through each of the module’s uplink ports.
  54. 54 Virtual Connect Connections The Virtual Connect modules plug directly into the interconnect bays of the enclosure. The modules can be placed side by side for redundancy. Each Virtual Connect Ethernet module has several numbered Ethernet connectors. All of these connectors can be used to connect to data center switches, or they can be used to stack Virtual Connect modules and enclosures as part of a single Virtual Connect domain.
  55. 55 Virtual Connect Connections Networks must be defined within the VCM so that specific named networks can be associated with specific external data center connections. These named networks can then be used to specify networking connectivity for individual servers. A single external network can be connected to a single enclosure uplink, or it can make use of multiple uplinks to provide improved throughput or higher availability. In addition, multiple external networks can be connected over a single uplink (or set of uplinks) through the use of VLAN tagging. • Enclosure name • Interconnect bay containing the Virtual Connect Ethernet module • Selected port on that module (1‐8, X1, X2, . . .) Mapping each network to a specific external port is the simplest approach to connecting the defined networks to the data center. An external port is defined by the following:
  56. 56 Virtual Connect Manager
  57. 57 Virtual Connect Manager This VCM home page provides access for the management of enclosures, servers, and networking. It also serves as the launch point for the initial setup of VCM. The VCM navigation system consists of a tree view on the left side of the page that lists all of the system devices and available actions. The tree view remains visible at all times. The right side of the page displays details for the selected device or activity, which includes a pull‐down menu at the top. To view detailed product information, select About HP VCMVCM from the Help pulldown menu.
  58. 58 Virtual Connect Manager • Manage enclosure connectivity • Define available LANs and SANs • Set up enclosure connections to the LAN or SAN • Define and manage server I/O profiles The VCM has the following functions: The VCM contains utilities and a Profile Wizard to develop templates to create and assign profiles to multiple servers at once. The I/O profiles include the physical NIC MAC addresses, Fibre Channel HBA WWNs, and the SAN boot configurations. The VCM profile summary page includes a view of server status, port, and network assignments. It also lets you manage profile details.
  59. • 1. Create a VC domain. • 2. Define Ethernet networks. • 3. Define FC SAN connections. • 4. Create server profiles. • 5. Manage data center changes. The Virtual Connect configuration process uses a consistent methodology. This includes the following tasks: 59 Virtual Connect Configuration
  60. 60 Create a VC Domain One of the first requirements in setting up a VC environment is to establish a VC Domain through the web‐based VCM interface.
  61. 61 Create a VC Domain A Virtual Connect domain consists of an enclosure and a set of associated modules and server blades that are managed together by a single instance of the VCM. The Virtual Connect domain contains specified networks, server profiles, and user accounts that simplify the setup and administration of server connections. Establishing a Virtual Connect domain enables administrators to upgrade, replace, or move servers within their enclosures without changes being visible to the external LAN/SAN environments.
  62. 62 Define Ethernet Networks After the domain has been created, you can now define the Ethernet networks
  63. 63 Define Ethernet Networks • Identifies the MAC addresses to be used on the servers deployed within this Virtual Connect domain. • Sets up connections from the HP c‐Class enclosure to the external Ethernet networks. The Network Setup Wizard establishes external Ethernet network connectivity for the HP BladeSystem c‐Class enclosure using HP Virtual Connect. A user account with network privileges is required to perform these operations. The Network Setup Wizard does the following: These connections can be uplinks dedicated to a specific Ethernet network or shared uplinks that carry multiple Ethernet networks with the use of VLAN tags.
  64. 64 Define FC SANs The Virtual Connect Fibre Channel Setup Wizard configures external Fibre Channel connectivity for the HP BladeSystem c‐Class enclosure using HP Virtual Connect
  65. 65 Define FC SANs • Identifies WWNs to be used on the server blades deployed within this Virtual Connect domain. • Defines available SAN fabrics. A user account with storage privileges is required to perform these operations. The Virtual Connect Fibre Channel Setup Wizard does the following: The Virtual Connect Manager Server Profile Wizard allows you to quickly set up and configure network/SAN connections for the server blades within your enclosure.
  66. 66 Create Server Profiles With this wizard, you can define a server profile template that identifies the server connectivity to use on server blades within the enclosure
  67. 67 Create Server Profiles The template can then be used to automatically create and apply server profiles to up to 16 server blades. The individual server profiles can be edited independently. Before beginning the server profile wizard, you must do the following: • Complete the Network Setup Wizard. • Complete the Fibre Channel Setup Wizard (if applicable). • Ensure that any blades to be configured using this wizard are powered off.
  68. 68 Create Server Profiles The server profile wizard defines a server profile template, assigns server profiles, and names server profiles. To set up a server profile, use the following steps: • 1. Configure the server profile using the VCM user interface. • 2. Insert the server blade. VCM detects that a server blade was inserted and reads the FRU data for each interface. VCM writes the server profile information to the server. • 3. Power on the server. CPU BIOS and NIC/HBA option ROM software write the profile information to the interface. The server boots using the server profile provided. When a blade is inserted into a bay that has a VCM profile assigned, the VCM detects the insertion through communications with the OA and must generate profile instructions for that server before the server is allowed to power on. If VCM is NOT communicating with the OA at the time the server is inserted, the OA continues to deny the server power request until the VCM has updated the profile. • 4. If a server is not powering on, verify that your VCM has established communications with that OA.
  69. 69 Manage Data Center Changes Once the VC domain is configured, it is easier to manage data center changes.
  70. • Replace a failed server without logging in to VCM because the server profile is assigned to the bay. • Copy a server profile from one bay to another. • Change a server’s network or SAN connections while the system is running. • Move a profile for a failed server to a spare server. • Assign a profile to an empty server bay for future growth. With a VC domain configured, you can do the following: 70 After Configuring VC domain
  71. 71 BladeSystem Storage Modules As mentioned earlier, storage is a key component in convergent technologies. You were introduced to virtualized storage options, SAN and NAS, earlier in the chapter. Blades also support direct attached storage (DAS) modules installed in the BladeServer enclosure, supporting applications for which this is a requirement. BladeServer tape blades give you an option for including locally installed tape modules as another storage option.
  72. 72 HP Tape Blades Tape blades from HP provide direct‐attach data protection for the adjacent server blades and network backup protection for all data residing within the enclosure. Some tape blades are shown in Figure.
  73. 73 Tape Blade Comparison
  74. 74 BladeSystem and Server Virtualization 4. Server Virtualization
  75. 75 Hypervisor introduction Server virtualization is a primary component in building a converged environment. In this environment, virtual machines (VMs) run on a host machine, giving you a way to support multiple servers on a single hardware platform. The VMs have access to hardware resources on the platform, such as network adapters for LAN and SAN access. The key to virtualization is the hypervisor, also known as a Virtual Machine Manager (VMM). This is the component that creates and runs the VM. You were introduced to two hypervisors in the previous chapter: Hyper‐V and VMware vSphere ESXi. We will be taking another look at these, including a closer look at how they can fit into your converged technology plans.
  76. 76 Server virtualization Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical machine, sharing the resources of that single computer across multiple environments. Different VMs can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer. Hypervisors like VMware and Microsoft Hyper‐V make this possible.
  77. 77 Server virtualization Hypervisor • A hypervisor or Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems.
  78. 78 Server virtualization • In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system. Virtual machines are based on computer architectures and provide functionality of a physical computer. Their implementations may involve specialized hardware, software, or a combination. • There are different kinds of virtual machines, each with different functions: • System virtual machines (also termed full virtualization VMs) provide a substitute for a real machine. They provide functionality needed to execute entire operating systems. • Process virtual machines are designed to execute computer programs in a platform- independent environment. Virtual machine (VM)
  79. 79 Server virtualization HP ProLiant servers support multiple virtualization solutions including VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper‐V. Microsoft Hyper-V is designed to offer "enterprise-class virtualization" for organizations with a data center or hybrid cloud. This option is a common choice for organizations who want to virtualize workloads, build a private cloud, scale services through a public cloud, or combine all three. VMware vSphere is a popular hypervisor choice for organizations hoping to achieve some degree of virtualization. Now on version 6.0, vSphere is highly configurable, which can make it an attractive choice for companies that are either going fully virtual or opting for a hybrid approach.
  80. 80 VMware vSphere VMware vSphere, which is based on VMware ESXi, provides a virtualization layer that abstracts the processor, memory, storage, and networking resources of the physical host into multiple VMs. A vSphere Hypervisor creates the foundation for a dynamic and automated data center.
  81. • Windows Server 2003 (and later) • Windows XP with Service Pack 3 (and later) • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2 (and later) • SUSE Linux Enterprise 10 (and later) • CentOS 5.2-5.6 and 6.0-6.1 Hyper‐V is the hypervisor available on Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. It supports various server and client operating systems as guest operating systems, including: 81 Hyper-V A current list of supported guest operating systems is available at the following address: •
  82. 82 Virtualization types • Type 1, also known as a native or bare metal hypervisor. • Type 2, also known as a hosted hypervisor. Hypervisors typically belong to one of two currently available types:
  83. 83 Type 1 Hypervisor A type 1 hypervisor runs directly on the host system hardware, as illustrated in Figure.
  84. 84 Type 1 Hypervisor The hypervisor manages the guest operating system, which is running at a way, the hypervisor is able to give the guest operating system access to hardware resources. VMware vSphere ESXi and Microsoft Hyper‐V are both type 1 hypervisors.
  85. 85 Type 2 Hypervisor Type 2 hypervisors run as an application within the host operating system. The host operating system acts as an additional layer between the system hardware and the hypervisor. The guest operating system operates on an additional level above the hypervisor. Operating systems that support type 2 hypervisors include both Microsoft Windows and Linux. VMware Workstation is one of the most commonly seen examples of a type 2 hypervisor. Microsoft Hyper‐V is sometimes mistaken for a type 2 hypervisor, but it is really a type 1. Virtual environments are run directly on the hypervisor rather than through the host operating system.
  86. • Full virtualization • Paravirtualization • Hardware‐assisted virtualization You might be wondering how a hypervisor handles requests for hardware resources from the guest operating system. Three virtualization technologies used by various hypervisors accomplish this task. These include: We will now take a look at the characteristics and benefits of each. 86 Virtualization Technologies
  87. 87 Full virtualization With full virtualization, the hypervisor performs binary translation for requests from the guest operating system and passes user requests directly to the hardware. The advantage of full virtualization is that the guest operating system does not know that it is virtualized. Therefore, any operating system can run in a virtual machine.
  88. 88 Paravirtualization With paravirtualization, the guest operating system is aware it is being virtualized and makes calls to a special interface of the virtualization layer. The primary disadvantage of paravirtualization is that only limited guest operating systems support it.
  89. 89 Hardware‐assisted virtualization Hardware‐assisted virtualization can be used on computers that have virtualization‐aware CPUs like Intel Virtualization Technology (VT‐x) and AMD‐V. When a CPU supports virtualization, the hypervisor can send guest operating system requests to the processor without translation.
  90. 90 Hypervisors Our focus in this course is the two most popular type 1 hypervisors: Hyper‐V and VMware vSphere ESXi. Hyper‐V comes embedded in Window Server 2008 (and later versions), but it is not enabled by default. To use Hyper‐V, you must enable the Hyper‐V role through Windows Server Manager. Several different versions of VMware are available for free download from the VMware website. However, many VMware products, including vSphere, require licensing.
  91. 91 Hyper-V Windows Server 2008 Hyper‐V R2 offers a robust, scalable hypervisor-based virtualization platform allowing enterprises to provision and manage virtual server workloads. Hyper‐V is supported on HP BladeSystem servers with Windows Server 2008 Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter. One of the most common uses of Hyper‐V is to create a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) environment. In a VDI environment, VMs run Windows client operating systems on the host computer. Users can access these from a client device, such as a PC or thin client. This gives you a way to centralize user desktops in a central location.
  92. 1. Support for native 64-bit hypervisor virtualization 2. Support for simultaneous single processor and multiple processor VMs 3. Concurrent support for 32-bit and 64-bit VMs 4. VLAN support 5. Management support through the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 6. Scripting and management through documented Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) interfaces 7. Support for VM snapshots 92 Hyper-V Features
  93. Component Maximum Additional notes Logical processors 64 To support this maximum, hardware-assisted virtualization and hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP) must be enabled in the host system BIOS. Virtual processors per logical processor 8 or 12 (see note) Up to 12 virtual processors are supported for each physical processor as long as all guest operating systems are running Windows 7. Otherwise, the limit is 8. Virtual machines per server 384 This maximum is for concurrently running VMs. Virtual processors per server 512 Maximum total storage No limit (see note). Hyper-V does not place a limit on the maximum storage. The maximum is set by the host operating system. Memory 1 TB Practical memory is limited by the amount of physical memory installed in the host machine. Physical network adapters No limit Hyper-V does not place any limit on the number of physical network adapters supported. Virtual networks (switches) No limit Hyper-V does not impose a limit, but you may be limited by available computing resources. Virtual network switch ports per server No limit Hyper-V does not impose a limit, but you may be limited by available computing resources. 93 Hyper-V virtual machines
  94. 94 Using Hyper-V • 1. Install Hyper‐V. • 2. Create and set up a VM. • 3. Install the guest operating system and integration service. • 4. Configure virtual networking. It is relatively easy to get Microsoft Hyper‐V up and running. To do so, follow these four basic steps: We will not be discussing this process in great detail, but it will be helpful to spend a little time mentioning the basics of each step.
  95. 95 Install Hyper‐V Saying that you must install Hyper‐V is a little misleading. It installs with Windows Server 2008 (and later versions), but the Hyper‐V role must be enabled in Windows Server Manager. During the process you will be prompted to choose one or more physical network adapters to support VM connections to the external network. You must restart the host computer after setting up Hyper‐V to make it available.
  96. 96 Creating VMs VMs are created and managed through the Hyper‐V Manager, which is installed with the Hyper‐V role.
  97. 97 Creating VMs • VM name and location (for storing the VM file) • Memory • Network connectivity • Virtual hard disk name, location, and size • Guest OS installation option Hyper‐V Manager includes a New Virtual Machine Wizard that lets you define your VM, including:
  98. 98 Installing the guest operating system The next step is installing the guest operating system. You can install from CD/ROM installation media, ISO file, floppy disk, or a network‐based installation server. Installation from a network‐based installation server requires access to the external network.
  99. 99 Configuring virtual networking You are prompted to configure virtual network settings for the VM. You can configure one or more of the following virtual network options for the VM: • Connects to the physical network through a physical network adapter installed in the host machine. External network • Provides a communication path between the VM and the host computer. Internal network • Configures a network that provides communication among VMs running on the same host, but only among VMs. Private network
  100. 100 VM External Network Settings You can add a network adapter to a VM after installation, but only if the VM is not running. When you do, you are prompted for the network adapter to use, MAC address information, and an optional VLAN ID. The Network Adapter settings for a new VM are shown in Figure.
  101. Sample External Connections 101 If you create an external network, Windows Server 2008 uses a virtual network adapter to connect to the physical network adapter. In the Control Panel, Network Connections shows both the physical network adapter and a virtual network adapter for each external network configured on the host computer, as shown in Figure.
  102. Sample External Connections Virtual Local Area Connection 10 through physical Local Area Connection 5. Virtual Local Area Connection 11 through physical Local Area Connection 7. Virtual Local Area Connection 12 through physical Local Area Connection 3. 102 Standard network protocols and services are bound to the virtual adapter. The Microsoft Virtual Network Switch Protocol is bound to the physical adapter to provide access to the external virtual network.
  103. VMware 103 •Server and datacenter •Desktop virtualization •Cloud computing •Application platform •SMB solutions •Apple Macintosh solutions Our main emphasis during this course is on using VMware vSphere ESXi to create and manage converged solutions relying on virtualization. VMware has long been the premiere provider of virtualization technologies. VMWare offers a wide range of products targeted at meeting your virtualization requirements. In fact, the VMware website offers links describing product suites and technical information focusing on various solutions, including: Specific feature support and platform requirements vary by product. It should be noted, however, that VMware offers products for use with Windows operating systems, Linux, and the Mac OS.
  104. 104 VMware ESXi Platform The vSphere ESXi platform is illustrated in Figure. ESXi is a popular hypervisor choice for creating a dynamic and automated data center.
  105. 105 vSphere Client Our main emphasis during this course is on using VMware vSphere ESXi to create and manage converged solutions relying on virtualization. With that in mind, we will give an overview here, and more detailed information is provided in the next lecture.