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International Knowledge Management & Innovation Leadership

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Course Outline
1. Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM)
-Types of Knowledge
-Classification of Knowledge
2. How does KM contribute to Schools
-Intellectual Capital
3. Innovation in KM
-The Nonaka and Takeuchi Model
-The SECI Model and Japanese Lesson Study
4. Four modes of Knowledge Conversion.
-socialization, -externalization, -combination, -internalization
5. Innovation Leadership strategy in KM and Q&A Workshop.

Goal& purposes
To review essential concepts and practices of Knowledge Management (KM) and explore the feasibility of applying KM to school education to;
-address the nature of knowledge and KM in applying The Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Knowledge Conversion in schools to manage knowledge
-to practice Innovation Leadership in KM to address school culture, knowledge strategies & processes, staff competencies and IT.



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International Knowledge Management & Innovation Leadership

  1. 1. Details: call / text 09175147952
  2. 2.  Principal Consultant for Lean Management. Certified ‘Train the Trainer’ & Kaizen Specialist with 30 over years working experience. Provides Technical Consulting Services on Lean, Kaizen & 21st Century Manufacturing.  An Innovative Engineer that innovates by Recycling & Reusing Idle resources to promote Green.  Founder of Tim’s Waterfuel an alternative fuel supplement using Water to add power & reduce Co2 emission on automobiles.  Rode 24 Countries, 18,290km,4 months 11 days 6 3/4 hrs from Malaysia to London on just a 125 cc. Timothy Wooi Add: 20C, Taman Bahagia, 06000, Jitra, Kedah Email: timothywooi2@gmail.com H/p: +6019 4514007 (Malaysia)
  3. 3. Take 5!
  4. 4. Let’s see…
  5. 5. 1. Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM) -Types of Knowledge -Classification of Knowledge 2.2. How does KM contribute to Schools -Intellectual Capital 33.. Innovation in KM -The Nonaka and Takeuchi Model -The SECI Model and Japanese Lesson Study Course OutlineCourse Outline 4. Four modes of Knowledge Conversion. -socialization, -externalization, -combination, -internalization 5. Innovation Leadership strategy in KM and Q&A Workshop.
  6. 6. To review essential concepts and practices of Knowledge Management (KM) and explore the feasibility of applying KM to school education to;  address the nature of knowledge and KM in applying The Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Knowledge Conversion in schools to manage knowledge..  to practice Innovation Leadership in KM to address school culture, knowledge strategies & processes, staff competencies and IT.
  7. 7. Knowledge Management (KM), is the next big management trends in education now besides Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM). The key to organizational success and survival now, is about how to build KM into the strategy process in Organizations.
  8. 8. Much had been written about the philosophy, concepts of knowledge and intellectual capital but not on;  how to combine a knowledge perspective with established strategy tools, or  how to develop unique knowledge-based sources of sustainable competitive advantage.
  9. 9. Take 5!
  10. 10. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) distinguish the
  11. 11. Explicit knowledge. - readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized. It can be stored in certain media. Eg. of explicit knowledge, - Information contained in encyclopedias and multi media. -transmitted to others in formal, systematic language, and can be removed from the original context.
  12. 12. It is developed from direct experience and action, communicated through informal conversation and shared experience. Tacit knowledge - difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. - It has a personal quality, hard to formalize and communicate.
  13. 13. Positivist Perspective of Knowledge The classification of explicit and tacit knowledge is based on the positivist and non-positivist perspectives on the nature of knowledge (Vo 2012). Positivist perspective -knowledge as justified true belief that can certainly be achieved. -a commodity, which “exists prior to and independently from the knowing subject” Vo (2012)
  14. 14. Knowledge takes an explicit form to represent a collection of objects and events in the world; therefore, “it is possible to codify, store, and transmit knowledge between people” For example, know-what is a form of explicit knowledge that can be explained by knowledge workers to others.
  15. 15. -could be translated into actions to solve practical problems and advance organizational practice. (Tranfield and Starkey 1998). This enable knowledge workers to acquire, apply, share, store and even create knowledge. Knowledge management is; management approach or strategy to develop the organization through managing knowledge resources.. Positivist Perspective of Knowledge characteristic
  16. 16. Although knowledge is situated in the historical, social and cultural contexts of the schools, it can be acquired through participation and created through mutual engagement in the process (Wenger 1998; Nicolini et al. 2003).
  17. 17. The phenomenon for capturing knowledge cannot be separated from the knowledge process, but is instead contextual. Table A compares the knowledge view from the positivist and non- positivist perspectives.
  18. 18. Resides in knowledge individuals’ minds and/or Communities of practice Social constructivism perspective Definition of knowledge A justified true belief Possessed by people “A collection of representations of the world, which is made up of a number of objects and events” (Chiva and Alegre 2005, p. 53) Socially constructed as a process Created by people Not as a representation, but as constructing or creating acts (Vo 2012) “Neither universal nor abstract, rather depends on context” (Chiva and Alegre 2005, p. 58) Existing form Visible, objective and rational Explicit knowledge Can be codified and stored Unseen, subjective and experience Based Tacit knowledge Shared through communication Location of knowledge Locates at written and verbal Information recorded in video, audio, databases and documents PersonalizationKM Strategies Codification Knowledge Positivist perspective
  19. 19. . Knowledge Management in school is; -a systematic and integrative process of coordinating schools with activities to retrieve, use, share, create and store knowledge, actionable information and expertise of individuals and groups in pursuit of organizational goals. (Cheng 2012; Rastogi 2000).
  20. 20. Take 5! Relax & Watch!
  21. 21. Knowledge Management processes support school involving The fundamental principle of KM in school is to; ‘manage knowledge as a resource to fill the existing knowledge gap to improve school performance’. (Davenport and Prusak 1998). innovation, individual learning, collective learning and collaborative decision making. 2. How does KM contribute to Schools?
  22. 22. The processes consist of formulation stages, implementation stages, and controlling stages with a systematic strategic management approach. KM currently is a discipline which is growing very fast.. KM landscape needed to be integrated with strategic management process in Schools.
  23. 23. Knowledge Management maximizes school effectiveness, productivity with sustainability, in creating a mechanism that measures, stores and transforms knowledge into intellectual capital. (Hatch and Dyer 2004). It increases staff’s capability to solve problems and organization’s ability to make improvements. (Sallis and Jones 2002)
  24. 24. KM- concerns the socialization process, organizational learning and reflection of knowledge. IM- focuses on data processing, constructing computer architectures and building taxonomies. However, KM needs to be built on effective Information Management, as it is harder to manage.
  25. 25. KM provides insights and experiences through socialization processes of information retrieval to make decisions and carry out effective actions. The socialization process for knowledge creation differentiates KM from IM. IM only function as collecting and distributing information.
  26. 26. -consists of other things beyond know- how, procedures, lessons learned, and all recognizable repositories of knowledge. Intellectual Capital -is individual or collective knowledge, that is used to enhance the value of other types of capital. (Casey 2010).
  27. 27. Intellectual Capital -includes reputation, brand recognition, trust, and other knowledge based qualities that strengthens professional competency of staffs. transforms the knowledge resources into intangible values. Intellectual Capital in Knowledge Management
  28. 28. Take 5! Relax & Watch!
  29. 29. Three disaggregated elements for exploring Intellectual Capital and its value are the “tripartite model” They are the, i. internal capital ii. external capital & Iii. human capital, (Kelly 2004; Sveiby 2001; Guthrie and Petty 2000).
  30. 30. The three components are interlinked, support and reinforce each other in an Organization with; shared sense of purpose and entrepreneurial spirit focus on a high value on agility, governs more by carrot than stick.
  31. 31. What is Knowledge Management in Education? KM in Education is a process of strategic planning for sustainable development in; school culture, knowledge strategies & processes, staff competencies and information technology into the strategy process, and describes the implementation affection of Knowledge Management.
  32. 32. Since KM is concerned with simplifying and improving the sharing, distributing, creating, capturing and understanding of knowledge, it serves as the process of creating value from school intangible assets therefore, the implementation of knowledge strategies. (Liebowitz and Megbolugbe 2003) What is Value?
  33. 33. KM in schools can be conceptualized as strategic management activities that support teachers to; collect information or make use of the organization’s knowledge resource to carry out their teaching & tasks effectively.
  34. 34. These knowledge management practices can help capture, codify and distribute knowledge in school; through the application of I.T. technologies or human interaction so that it can be shared by all teachers.
  35. 35. Knowledge Management allow Teachers to discuss school issues with Principals. Teachers can reflect on & review other’s and develop further strategies & plans for improving school-based policy and teaching effectiveness. School policies can be adjusted in light of teacher feedback for maximizing student learning.
  36. 36. KM helps capture and retain experienced teacher knowledge in school and strengthen the novice teacher’s knowledge through knowledge transfer in administrative work and teaching. KM strengthens the knowledge-sharing culture and build collegiality into the school organization in innovative teaching and effective learning.
  37. 37. Take 5! Relax & Watch!
  38. 38. Collegiality A work environment where responsibility and authority is shared equally by colleagues. You know you work in a collegial environment when your co-workers smile at you, and you don't have to hide from your supervisor. In Japanese- Haibun
  39. 39. Data mining in student test scores, are conducted to identify students’ strengths & weaknesses for effective instructional design.
  40. 40. KM Systems cultivates practice on lesson study for capturing, sharing, storing & creating pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. It involves a group of teachers meeting regularly to work on the; design,  implementation,  testing and  improvement of one or several ‘research lessons’
  41. 41. With professional development, a ‘one-stop service’ knowledge repository for student affairs can be built that provides… teachers and students information on student study advancement and career guidance, to provide better student guidance and counseling.
  42. 42. Knowledge Management in school education is a new concept; thus, we need a KM model to help us conceptualize it; ..to a deeper understanding of how the knowledge process works within the school. Nonaka and Takeuchi’s KM Model
  43. 43. Knowledge Management is regarded as the means to manage rapid change within the organization.
  44. 44. Innovation means first different, then better. It is a fundamentally different way of doing things with better, and different, outcomes. Both the 'different' and the 'better' must be significant and substantial. What is Innovation?
  45. 45. “Innovation in education should be defined as making it easier for teachers and students to do the things THEY want to do. These are the innovations that succeed, scale and sustain.” – Rob Abel, USA What is Innovation in Education? Innovation in EducationInnovation in Education
  46. 46. Own as Principal the role of Innovator-in-Chief: You can’t delegate innovation: “Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower’’ Steve Jobs.
  47. 47. The Nonaka and Takeuchi KM Model The Nonaka and Takeuchi KM model focuses on knowledge spirals that transforms tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and back again. This is the basis for innovation and learning, making use of their skills and expertise to create knowledge for innovation. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
  48. 48. The fundamental theory is a knowledge management system to;  convert tacit knowledge in the market and the organization to explicit knowledge, and then  to crystallize it into an innovative product.
  49. 49. It also re-conceptualize organizational design and strategy in terms of of knowledge creation. The Nonaka and Takeuchi KM model is basically a two- dimensional matrix of four scenarios of tacit and explicit knowledge interaction or conversion.
  50. 50. ‘CHANGING EDUCATION’ Take 5!
  51. 51. Nonaka and Takeuchi 4 modes KM model -SECI
  52. 52. Socialization - process of creating common tacit knowledge through shared experiences.
  53. 53. Externalization - process of articulating tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge as concepts and/or diagrams.
  54. 54. Combination- - process of assembling new and existing explicit knowledge into systemic knowledge, such as a new curriculum implementation plan and teaching methods.
  55. 55. Internalization- - process of embodying explicit knowledge into tacit, pedagogical knowledge such as having the “know- how” to teach.
  56. 56. Knowledge originates and develops in teachers The school / teachers internalize knowledge as common practice Teachers share explicit knowledge The school / other teachers embed knowledge in structural capital School Context of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s four modes of knowledge conversion
  57. 57. The SECI model of Nonaka and Takeuchi in knowledge transfer and creation process, revealed that internal organizational knowledge flow is obtained through mutual interaction and sharing by the members, thereby Knowledge originates and develops in teachers The school / teachers internalize knowledge as common practice Teachers share explicit knowledge The school / other teachers embed knowledge in structural capital strengthening the organization and the teaching skills of individual members.
  58. 58. Knowledge originates and develops in teachers The school / teachers internalize knowledge as common practice Teachers share explicit knowledge The school / other teachers embed knowledge in structural capital Joia (2002), using the SECI model in the in-service training of teachers in Brazilian schools, found that only the socialization process (tacit to tacit knowledge) gave Teachers the skills and expertise to do their job well.
  59. 59. The SECI model is a descriptive theory that, outlines the conversions between tacit and explicit knowledge and vise versa. 5. The SECI Model and Japanese Lesson Study This illustrates the tacit nature of teacher knowledge which is to be transferred via social learning.
  60. 60. A core feature of Japan's system of professional learning is “lesson study”. Jugyou kenkyuu, It is a collaborative inquiry cycles that revolve around planning, observation, and analysis of live instruction. The heart of the inquiry cycle is a “research lesson”
  61. 61. The focus of the ‘research lesson’ - teacher-generated problem, goal or vision
  62. 62. The concrete steps of a lesson study which are thought to lead to increased professional knowledge and skills are; . 1 Defining and research problem. 2 Plan the lesson. 3 Teach and observe the lesson 4 Evaluate lesson and reflect its effect. 5 Revisit the lesson. 6 Teach and observe the revised lesson. 7 Evaluate and reflect a second time 8 Sharing the results. lesson study for increased professional knowledge and skills (Stigler and Hiebert 1999, pp. 112–115):
  63. 63. Adaptations of any imported innovations often have a life of their own. Thus, attempts to adapt the practice of Jugyou kenkyuu vary widely across countries but the steps are the same.
  64. 64. Nonaka and Takeuchi’s four modes conversion model explains how teachers share their tacit and explicit knowledge through Lesson Study. Lesson study. -an action research and professional development activity in which Teachers collaborate to create effective lessons and examine their practice. (Fernandez 2002; Lewis 2002).
  65. 65. Take 5!
  66. 66. Combination - a process of converting explicit knowledge into a more usable form. - involves the combination of teachers’ own conceptual understanding of subject knowledge and how it was dealt in the past.
  67. 67. The combination of explicit knowledge allows teachers to design learning activities that will tackle student learning difficulties.
  68. 68. Internalization - process of understanding and absorbing explicit knowledge, turning it into tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is action through doing or through simulations. Enactment of the lesson plan is an internalization process that transfers school and team explicit knowledge.
  69. 69. As teachers apply the knowledge shared in the lesson planning in their teaching practices, the explicit knowledge is being internalized to become the teachers’ personal knowledge (Kolb 1984).
  70. 70. Socialization -transfers tacit knowledge from one person to tacit knowledge in another. A process between individuals. Knowledge is captured by direct interaction and sharing experience with individuals outside and inside an organization.
  71. 71. Take 5! Relax & Watch!
  72. 72. Teachers reflect on the lesson and suggest improvements immediately after the lesson A second teacher will revise the lesson plan, with the post-test results, and teach the revised lesson to another class.
  73. 73. Repeat process until all teachers have taught the lesson to their respective classes. Teaching practice articulates pedagogic knowledge to a practical teaching task to enhance student problem-solving ability.
  74. 74. Tacit knowledge is situated in a lesson study committee, and it is acquired through participation. Tacit knowledge is continually reproduced and negotiated in lesson planning, teaching and the post-lesson conference , extracted through discussion and collaboration. Nicolini et al. (2003).
  75. 75. Externalization -process for making tacit knowledge explicit, conducted through an evaluation meeting as the final stage. This involves data triangulation of the test scores, student interview data, and video analysis, to find a relationship between how teachers handled the subject and what the students learned.
  76. 76. The teachers will suggest further improvements and revise the lesson design for future reference. They conduct a public presentation to turn their tacit knowledge into transferable explicit knowledge. They reflect on what they have learned through the lesson study. (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995).
  77. 77. The whole experience is written up as a case report, which becomes a transferable and shared inventory of the school. The pedagogical content knowledge is coded in the form of a teaching manual, meeting records and the case report. The application of the SECI model to schools is illustrated by the lesson study.
  78. 78. Pedagogical knowledge is created by building a knowledge-sharing platform or knowledge management system using the SECI model School leaders should nurture a set of conditions that support and sustain the knowledge creation process. e.g. create an organizational learning culture, develop teacher PKM competency, cultivate professional learning community, and institutionalize a knowledge management system.
  79. 79. KM is a management perspective and not as a set of tools and methods to leverage knowledge. (Takeuchi and Nonaka’s 2004) KM is the heart of what management has to do in a fast-changing, complex and uncertain world. Since knowledge creation is the heart of today’s knowledge management society, SECI model will serve as the universal model for management at large.
  80. 80. Take 5! Relax & Watch!
  81. 81. . KM strategy is a plan that describes how to manage its information and knowledge better for the benefit of that organization and its stakeholders. 5. Innovation Leadership strategy in Knowledge Management The primary purpose is to guide executives on choices to initiate KM projects according to;  goals, organizational character,  technological, behavioral, or economic biases..
  82. 82. .
  83. 83. 5. Innovation Leadership as strategy in KM - an organization overall approach to align its knowledge resources and capabilities for enhancing organizational performance. KM strategies can be divided into two categories: 1. Codification for knowledge storing; 2. Interpersonal interactive knowledge sharing (Hansen et al. 1999; Zack 1999).
  84. 84. A most powerful learning and innovative- mind developing activity has been, visiting other schools shadowing students, and blogging my observations. Take initiative as Principal to observe closely what other schools are doing, from across many educational sectors: K-12 and post-secondary, private, public, charter, etc.
  85. 85. In such instances, individuals strive to explicitly encode their knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a database, and also retrieve knowledge they need, which other individuals have added to the repository. These strategies usually apply IT to facilitate the processes of knowledge retrieval, storage and utilization.
  86. 86. Interpersonal interactive knowledge sharing emphasis the use of dialogue through social networks, including occupational groups and teams, and knowledge can be obtained in this way from experienced and skilled people. (Swan et al.2000). In such instances, individuals can provide their insights to the particular person or people in need of them (Snowden 2002).
  87. 87. It helps to share knowledge through person-to- person contact. This strategy attempts to acquire internal and opportunistic knowledge and share it informally (Jordan and Jones 1997). It involves the knowledge processes of retrieval, sharing and utilization
  88. 88. In School Education, knowledge management; KM provides a platform for teachers to discuss different teaching ideas & to post resources for student learning.  retains expertise of experienced teachers,  increases effectiveness in teaching and learning performance,  supports development of a knowledge community in schools and  fosters culture of learning (Leung 2010)
  89. 89.  leadership and change management,  strategies and goals,  organizational learning,  technical support,  school culture and trust among teachers. Leung (2010) Critical factors affecting Knowledge Management in school contexts are;
  90. 90. Effective knowledge strategies for building school intellectual capital are knowledge sharing via interpersonal interaction, rather than the codification strategies for knowledge storing. (Zack 1999) Successful KM in a school involves aspects such as accessibility of IT, strong leadership, cultural influences, organizational structure and human characteristics.
  91. 91. Decision Making and Organizational Learning is another emphasized KM strategies. Personal strategies are highly correlated with positive Knowledge Management environments in schools. Personal strategies also tend to influence the knowledge culture within schools .
  92. 92. The quality of data kept within schools, and the extent to which decision making in schools is information driven. Personal strategies can manipulate the way people seek and tolerate new knowledge, and how ideas are valued and used. Abdul Hamid (2008)
  93. 93. Higher levels of personal knowledge result in a stronger quality decision making process in schools. This strengthens strategies of seeking, receiving, analyzing, using, storing, retrieving and disseminating information.
  94. 94. Take 5!
  95. 95. 1. Enumerate your skills & experiences. 2. How do you intend to share / transfer your knowledge & skills to others? (Identify the mode you use from the SECI model of the four modes of knowledge conversion). 3. How are you going to codify/store these knowledge for others to retrieve and use. Discuss and submit your answers.
  96. 96. Be Blessed!

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