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Witchcraft in the southwest

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Witchcraft in the southwest

  1. 1. Southwestern witchcraft<br />Hispanic and Native American History and Religious Belief<br />Created by:<br /> Tina Barker<br /> Katrina Donoho<br /> Bronwyn Olsen<br /> Krystle Salcido<br />
  2. 2. History of Hispanic Practices and Beliefs<br />Southwestern WitchCraft<br />
  3. 3. Long before the start of the Mexican War, the southwestern region of the United States was a mostly Spanish speaking territory. The United States saw the largest influx of emigration from Mexico around WWI when cheaper labor was needed for industrialization. The emigration of Hispanics into the southwest can be broken down into five categories: Spanish conquest and <br />revolt against the Spanish, independence of southwest into an independent Mexico, exploitation of Mexico by Anglo-Americans, immigration for industrialization and assertion of Mexican rights to be in the southwest.<br />History of Hispanic migration<br />
  4. 4. The practice of Wicca was first introduced to Latin America with the invasion of the Spanish conquistadors between 1500-1900. Brujeria is the Spanish word for witchcraft and brujo/ brujas have always been a part of southwestern culture, but it was not until the conquistadors came that all witchcraft was thought to be evil/bad. Brujos can be classified as traditional or modern and are needed for a variety of situations including healing, cleansing, blessing, spells and plant knowledge. <br />History Of Hispanic Witchcraft<br />
  5. 5. Traditional Brujos are individuals who believe in using remedies that are derived from the earth. They will obtain herbs, roots, fruits, woods for burning, mud and other varieties to create cures for physical or spiritual sicknesses that people are suffering from. <br />Traditional Brujos<br />
  6. 6. Modern brujas are similar to traditional brujas in that they still use most of their ingredients from the Earth. The difference is that modern brujos recognize the advancements that modern medicine may play in the recovery of a client and will refer them to a medical doctor if they do not feel that they could best solve the client’s ailment. <br />Modern Brujos<br />
  7. 7. The main religion among Hispanics in the southwest is Roman Catholicism. This sect of Christianity was introduced with the Spanish conquistadors brought about the negative connotations associated with brujos. Even though most Hispanics choose Catholicism as their religion, curanderas (bruja/brujo) services are still used in time of sickness or evil. <br />Religion<br />
  8. 8. Brujos use a variety of herbs to cure their clients. These include:<br />-sage brush<br />-ocotillo blossoms<br />-prickly pear<br />-gold weed<br />-osha<br />-tobacco<br />-mountain mugwort<br />Common Herbs Used In Ceremonies<br />
  9. 9. People used Brujos to cure many ailments of the body and mind. These can include:<br />-stomach pains<br />-removal of hexes<br />-manage arthritis<br />-card readings for life decisions<br />-Dietary advice<br />Common Ailments attempted to cure<br />
  10. 10. Common hispanic tools<br />The first thing for a brujo to do before attempting to heal a person is to purify the house and the individual. The purification can be done with incense, holy water or salt. Small jars are used to hold oils or herbs. Candles and matches are needed in use of spell work and pins are handy for preparation of dolls or hanging pictures. Crucifixes are useful also as a form of protection. <br />
  11. 11. Hispanic Practice and Belief<br />Southwestern Witchcraft<br />
  12. 12. Belief and Practices of the Hispanics<br />Most Hispanics speak Spanish and attend the Roman Catholic church. Many depends on their level of acculturation and adaptation they also share many traditional beliefs about health and disease. The traditional beliefs can be in many categories such as, belief in hot and cold theory of illness, belief in folk illness and healers, and beliefs in supernatural, magic, and witchcraft.<br />
  13. 13. Hot and Cold Beliefs <br />Hispanics believe that physical and mental illness may be qualified to an difference between the person and the environment. Illness includes emotional, spiritual, and social state, as well as physical factors such as the expression as to much hot or cold. The hot and cold classification varies from person to person, and what is hot to one person may be cold to another. Penicillin and vitamins are consider hot and sage and tobacco are cold.<br />
  14. 14. Pre-Hispanic town of UxmalThis is where they go to pray to the gods and do rituals.<br />
  15. 15. Folk illness<br />Folk illness are health issues that are culturally diagnosis and treatment. Mal de ojo (evil eye) is a person with a strong eye that is looking with respect or jealous at another person. They believe that folk illness symptoms causes stressful events and then one becomes ill. The stressful events are thought to free a person’s spirit or soul from the body.<br />
  16. 16. Folk Healers<br />Folk healers practices curandrismo, which is a set of traditional belief, rituals, and practices that addresses the physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs of individuals. <br />
  17. 17. Healer<br />A healer is a person who learns how to teach the body to heal itself and share the wisdom with others. Holy water is used in Catholicism and praying which is to heal someone with spiritual weakness. Yerberos are herbalists, which is people who experiment with herbs and not a doctors medicine. <br />This picture is a plant of Aloe<br />which can be used on your skin <br />to heal it.<br />
  18. 18. Symbols in the Hispanic Faith<br />Many Hispanics believe in their faith of religion. In their homes it is common to find a portrait of “El Corazon de Jesus” which is a painting of Jesus with his bleeding heart with thorns and praying hands. Others symbols that they worship and believe in so much are crosses, saints, rosary and The Virgin Mary.<br />
  19. 19. Trials of Witchcraft<br />The Spanish and Mexican Inquisitions witchcraft was torturous nature, violent punishment, and faulty procedures. People failed to understand the inquisition of the contexts of Mexico and Spain. Spanish and Mexican Inquisition plays a key role in what they did, and who they targeted. Some sources refer to these beliefs as pagan or a specific religion. Pre-Catholic has no judgment and therefore will be used to describe faiths. Pre-Hispanic culture is refer to the multiple culture that existed in both the Basque region and Mexico prior to the arrival to Spanish forces and culture.<br />
  20. 20. History of the Native American Culture in the Southwest Region<br />Witchcraft in the southwest<br />
  21. 21. There are different beliefs about the time frame in which Indians came to be in North America. Some believe that they crossed the Bering Strait as far back as 25,000 B.C. and then migrated throughout the land. It is also believed that migration to the Southwest did not occur until between the years of 1100 and 1500. However, there are stories by the Navajos that place their creation around 28,000 B.C.<br />Native American Origins<br />Sand Art of Navajo creation story<br />
  22. 22. Southwestern Native Americans consisted of four groups: the Yuman, Pima and Papago, Pueblo, and the Navajo and Apache. Each of these tribes was separated into bands, each with their own council. The Southwestern American Indians make up about 20 percent of all Native Americans in North America. The members of the tribes that were related formed a lineage and several lineages would form a clan or moieties. A village could often have many clans which were named after animals, plants, or other naturally occurring forces. Each of these clans or moieties was responsible for certain rituals and community life.<br />Native american lineage<br />
  23. 23. These systems were very important for keeping harmony among the Natives and with Supernatural forces. Except for the Apaches, the entire community was close knit, but for all, family and blood line was very important as well as their different traditions and customs. Though all had some differences in their practices, all had the similar belief in the supernatural and the oneness with their surroundings.<br />Native american lineage<br />
  24. 24. Most of the Southwestern Native American Indians were farmers, hunters and gatherers with the men responsible for field work and hunting, while the women were responsible for collecting firewood, food preparation, child rearing, making the clothes, and other things necessary for the home. Some of<br />the other tribal men, such as the Apache <br />men would hunt, fight, and raid other <br />tribes as a means of survival.<br /> <br />Male and female roles<br />
  25. 25. Before the Europeans came to America, Native Americans lived a pretty basic existence. They lived, ate, and survived according to their environment. Mostly utilizing what was naturally provided from the earth to eat, make their homes, and practice their religion. The homes consisted of teepees, pueblos, and hogans <br />that could be made from the<br />materials or animals that their<br />lands provided. <br />Survival methods<br />
  26. 26. In the southwest there was much drought, however there was still much fertile land for farming and the raising of animals such as sheep, cattle, and mule deer. There was also a variety of other wildlife such as coyote which also played a strong role in their religious beliefs.<br />Survival methods<br />Mule Deer<br />
  27. 27. The Southwest was rich in minerals, but the Indians did not look at this for monetary gain. Only after the colonization in the 1500’s, did this became an issue. This colonization also brought about conflict due to the religious practices and ceremonies held by the Native American Indians.<br />colonization <br />
  28. 28. The Indians practiced shamanism, animism, and other forms of witchcraft, which was unacceptable to the newcomers. Many Indians were killed due to these practices as well as for the natural resources of the land. Although Catholicism was pushed and seemingly accepted by some, there were those that took their practices and formed an underground society so that they could continue their religious beliefs in secret. This even continues today.<br />religion<br />
  29. 29. Indian practices and ceremonies were designed to provide guidance and healing to those in need. They do not call themselves a medicine man as we see in Ceremony but refer to themselves as herbalists, healers or spirit communicators. Tobacco is a common tool used which is considered to be sacred when offered to the spirits.<br />Indian Practices<br />
  30. 30. Sweat Lodge: A sweat lodge is where a person will go to sweat out impurities to heal the body, mind and spirit.<br />Animal Totems: Birds and animals that appear in dreams or the reality are considered to be messengers with spiritual guidance.<br />Prayer Ties: Prayer ties are most often in the four basic colors of red, white, black and yellow. They serve as an offering to the spirits in hopes of a blessing. They often have tobacco in the middle of the tie. Once the ties are hung a chant/prayer is repeated.<br />Common Indian tools<br />
  31. 31. “Dear Mother, I call out to the four great winds. I feel your breezes against my face. I thank you for taking away those things which no longer serve me with your clearing sweeps of change. I appreciate your precious gifts carried in a wisp of air and delivered at my feet. I offer you this string of four prayer ties with gratitude for all your kindness and knowledge. I come to you with the utmost respect and love” (Lila, Desy, P. (2011). <br />This would then be followed with the request and reason for the prayer ties.<br />Example of a prayer tie chant<br />
  32. 32. There is the belief that there are spirits who are in control of things such as the weather, human interaction and the underworlds.<br />Indian beliefs<br />
  33. 33. Emergence of the Tribe: Common belief in the Southwest that the universe has many layers. Humans had to crawl up through the layers to enter the present world. As they arrived at the present world they only had a very small space in which to crawl through. The hole in the ground in which they emerged is often known as the Earth’s belly button.<br />Beliefs<br />
  34. 34. Cosmology: <br />The universe is composed of many different layers with the present world being the middle layer. All the layers are connected through the Root Tree who has his roots in the bottom layer, his stem in the middle layer and his leaves at the top layer. <br />Beliefs<br />
  35. 35. Shamans:<br />The Shaman are healers who allow spirits to enter their body during a public ceremony. Spirits in the body are then asked a favor and depart to perform the favor to the best of their ability. Other times, the Shaman may enter into a trance. While in this trance, he will traverse the underworlds. The Shaman also may travel great distances throughout the nature world to seek healing and lost possessions. <br />Beliefs<br />
  36. 36. Afterlife: The Indians have no specific belief about what happens when one is to pass on. Some believe that the dead will be reborn as a human or an animal. Others believe that some return as a ghost. A final belief is that one may return as human, but will reside in another layer of the world. It is common for the beliefs to be combined.<br />Beliefs<br />
  37. 37. The practices of Indians can be seen throughout the novel. The prayer ties with the tobacco can be seen in the novel. Tobacco is thought to be sacred and on page 151 Ceremony the Fly and Hummingbird have to fly back to the world because they do not have tobacco as an offering to the spirits. <br />The practice of animal totems can also be seen in the novel. Tayo has a deep respect for the cattle and how they represent Josiah in his life. He uses them as a guiding tool.<br />Relationship with Ceremony<br />
  38. 38. Relationship to Ceremony<br />The beliefs of Indians can also be seen throughout the novel. The emergence of the tribe explains that there are many layers to the universe. We see this in the book as it tells the story of how there is the four worlds.<br />We also see a medicine man in the novel. This is very similar to the Shamans that are helping to heal those in need and work with the spirits. <br />Afterlife also plays a part in the novel. It is not much when a person dies, but we read about the bear witches and the coyote boy. These are both instances of humans and animals becoming one such as what could happen to one after they pass on.<br />
  39. 39. Works cited<br />"Aloe Plant." Web. 27 Feb 2011. <>. <br />"Brujeria." Brujeris-Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, 29/Jan/2011. Web. 27 Feb 2011. <>. <br />“Herb Companion”. Web. 27 Feb 2011. <><br />“Hispanic History”. Web. 27 Feb 2011. <<br />"Pre-Hispanic Town of Uxmal." Web. 27 Feb 2011. <>. <br />
  40. 40. Roman, Jeanelle. "Doctors Vs. Healers." Being Latino Online Magazine 11/Nov/2010: n. pag. Web. 27 Feb 2011. <beinglatio.wordpress.com2010/11/11/doctor-vs-healer/<br />"Virgin Mary." Web. 27 Feb 2011. <>. <br />"Wooden Rosary." Web. 27 Feb 2011. <htt://>. <br />Works cited<br />
  41. 41. Works cited<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />