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Mdmp How To Guide

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Mdmp How To Guide

  1. 1. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE 1. Receive the mission 2. Issue a Warning Order 3. Make a Tentative Plan 4. Initiate Movement 5. Conduct Reconnaissance 6. Complete the Plan 7. Issue an Operations Order 8. Supervise and Rehearse * Troop Leading Procedures are not steps done in an exact order. They occur at different times throughout the MDMP process. * Military Decision making process (MDMP) 7 Steps 1. Receive the Mission a. Alert the Staff b. Staff gathers their tools: Higher HQ’s order, Maps, SOPs, FMs, existing Staff Estimates c. CDR and staff do a quick initial assessment: Determine time available, Determine planning and mission timeline (refer to the Planning Timeline Matrix) d. Issue CDR’s Initial guidance (1) Hasty or Deliberate planning process (2) LNOs to dispatch (3) Recon to SP (4) Authorize movement (5) Additional tasks for staff to do (6) Determine Reconnaissance tasks to be accomplished in support of planning e. Issue Warning Order #1 (1) Forces Available (Attachments / Detachments) (2) Describe AO/AI (Para 1) (3) General Enemy Situation (Para 1) (4) General Friendly Situation (Para 1) (4) Type and time of operation (Para 2) (5) Tentative Time Line (6) Security, movement, and recon instructions (Para 3) (7) Tentative Timeline (Para 3) (8) Other pertinent Information (Para 3) 2. Conduct Mission Analysis (17 Steps): Allows the CDR to begin his battlefield visualization, CDR conducts his own mission analysis, Staff fill out MA Worksheets, XO ID’s TPR Products, refer to TLP Product matrix a. Step 1: Analyze higher’s order and ensure complete understanding of: (1) One and two Higher CDR Intent: Key Tasks, Endstate (2) One and two Higher Concept of the operation: Decisive Point, Nested Tasks and Purposes (3) Tasks, constraints, risks, available assets, AO/AI (4) Timeline (5) Understand the Missions of adjacent units (6) (RFI) Seek immediate clarification of anything that you do not understand b. Step 2: Intelligence Preparation of the battlefield (IPB) (4 Steps) (1) Define the battlefield Environment: AO/AI (a) Identify Unit Boundaries (AO) (Where you will be operating) (b) Identify the area that can influence your operation (AI) (Enemy Influence) 1
  2. 2. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE (2) Describe the Battlefield Effects: MCOO (a) Analyze the Battlefield Environment - Terrain Analysis: OAKOC (remember IV Line analysis) - Weather Analysis: Vis/Illum, Wind, speed/Direction, Precip, Cloud Cover, Temp/Humidity, Weather and Light Data - Analysis of other characteristics of the battlefield (b) Describe the battlefield’s effects on friendly and enemy capabilities (3) Evaluate the Threat: Doctrinal Template (a) Doctrinal Template: Illustrate the deployment pattern, his preferred doctrine or TTPs when not constrained by the battlefield Effects or environment (b) Describe the Enemy Capabilities by BOS: Description of preferred tactics and options / Weapons / Systems (c) Identify HVTs: Enemy HVTs become your HPTs - ID These assets when listing his assets available and mark them on the Enemy Forces available chart (4) Determine the Threat COAs: Situational Template (a) ID the threats likely objectives and desired endstate: One level higher and two levels down (b) ID the full set of COAs available to the threat: Each COA must meet the 5 criteria for a COA (Suitable, Feasibility, Acceptable, Distinguishable, Complete) (c) Evaluate and prioritize each COA: - ID Enemy strengths and weaknesses - ID how well each COA meets the 5 criteria for a COA - ID how well each COA takes advantage of the environment - Determine which COA the threat would prefer - ID the threats recent activity – could be an indicator - Use judgment to rank them (d) Develop each COA in the amount of detail that time allows (Concept statement and concept sketch) Each COA must answer what, where, when, why, and how. Develop the SITTEMP and ID locations of maneuver and BOS elements. What is the enemy purpose and what does he want to accomplish. – What are the enemies HVTs for each COA and how are they used and where are they positioned? Enemy will accomplish this operation my conducting a (Form of maneuver or Defensive technique) His decisive point is and why, T/P for all maneuver assets at the decisive point, purpose of BOS, how the enemy would fight the COA from start to finish and what his desired endstate is. Depending on how you evaluate each COA one will become the MPCOA and one will become the MDCOA (e) Develop the EVENT TEMPLATE / EVENT MATRIX: Determine time phase lines for the enemy and or triggers (Place your COAs on top of one another and where they are different focus your reconnaissance effort IOT confirm your Enemy COA. This will assist you in the development of your decision support matrix (DSM) and Decision support template (DST) later. (f) ID Initial intelligence collection requirements: This is the art of predicting which COA the enemy will choose. Areas where key events occur are NAIs and activities in these NAIs which reveal a COA are called indicators. As addressed above, the Event Template is a method used to ID NAIs and time phase lines. The Event Template is a guide for collection and R+S Planning. Pay close attention to the times and places where the enemy HVTs are employed or when / where you can enter areas where they can be engaged. These areas will evolve into NAIs in support of targeting. The event matrix supports the template by providing the details on the type of activity expected in each NAI. Refer to enemy time phase lines to observe the NAIs. Understand the PIR (the question you want answered and the indicators for each NAIs. This information will be included in ANNEX L (R+S MATRIX) in WARNO #2 Also link TAIs to NAIs to assist in the targeting of enemy assets. NAIs and TAIs are linked by decision points and or triggers. The Event template time phase lines will determine the placement of TAIs in relation to your NAIs. c. Step 3: Determine specified, implied, and essential tasks by BOS element: Use the Mission Analysis Worksheet d. Step 4: Review Assets Available: Friendly forces available chart, determine if you need to request additional assets e. Step 5: Determine Constraints (List on Mission Analysis Worksheet) Requirements, restrictions, lack of assets f. Step 6: ID Critical Facts and Assumptions (List on Mission Analysis Worksheet) Take the place of necessary facts, it must be valid and necessary. g. Step 7: Conduct Risk Assessment: (1) ID potential Hazards (2) ID Preventative measures to mitigate the risk (3) ID Acceptable Risks 2
  3. 3. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE FINALIZE THE EVENT TEMPLATE AND EVENT MATRIX h. Step 8: Determine initial CCIR: Needed by CDR to make critical decisions, directly effect success or failure of the mission, time sensitive in that they drive decisions, use a CCIR Chart. Initial CCIR is normally PIR associated with confirming or denying an enemy COA. EEFI associated with what the enemy will try to locate while you are in your TAA or preparing for defensive operations. FFIR associated with confirming or denying that a friendly COA can be accomplished ie. Combat power loss personnel or key equipment or classification of a route or bridge needed for the operation. (1) Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR): Two types: Initial PIR in support of planning and PIR generated as a result of wargaming that is PIR in support of execution. This PIR is normally associated with targeting. What we want to know about the enemy EX. Will the enemy CATK use AA2? (2) Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI): Information the enemy wants to know about us. How do I prevent the enemy from seeing me? What we want to hide from the enemy. This drives the security plan. (3) Friendly Forces Information Requirements (FFIR): Two types: Initial FFIR and FFIR identified during the Wargame which is normally linked to branch plans or the commitment of the reserve. Information about your own forces. i. Step 9: Determine initial RECON Annex L: To ID gaps in Intelligence – USE R + S MATRIX (1) Five para OPORD: AO, mission, task org, obj, PIR & IR, initial NAIs, routes & POL info, logistics, fire support, and medical evacuation, & R&S Overlay. (2) Product of IPB, Event Template, and initial CCIR (3) Update initial CCIR & tasks for reconnaissance as intell is gathered j. Step 10: Plan use of available time: Refine initial timeline & compare to enemy timeline, determine when to exploit or when the unit is at risk from enemy activity, 1/3-2/3, mission and planning timelines k. Step 11: Write the restated mission: No more than two O/O missions and no be prepared missions. l. Step 12: Conduct the Mission Analysis Briefing: To the CDR & staff, ensure staff members are starting from same point, XO Sync the Staff, SOP Brief. (SEE MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEF FORMAT) (SEE MA STAFF ESTIMATE SHEETS) m. Step 13: CDR approves the restated mission n. Step 14: Develop initial CDR’s Intent (1) Key Tasks: Tasks or conditions that must be performed with respect to the enemy, the terrain and the CDR’s desired endstate to achieve the stated purpose. Not COA Specific and should drive initiative in subordinates – lends the ability to adaptive leadership o. Step 15: CDR’s guidance to the staff: After a review of the staff’s Staff Estimate the commanders conducts his own estimate and issues it to the staff in the form of guidance (1) Specific enemy and friendly COAs to consider and number to develop CDR may issue a directed COA (2) CDR approves/modifies/adds CCIR (3) Security measures to implement (4) Type of OPORD to issue (5) Type of rehearsal (6) Decisive Point: If known (7) Guidance on the following: (a) Recon (b) Risk (c) Deception: Reference EEFI (d) Fire Support (e) Mobility / countermobility (f) Other 3
  4. 4. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE p. Step 16: Issue WARNO # 2 – 5 paragraph format (1) Para 1. (This is just an example and not the only format) (a) Updated Terrain Analysis (b) Updated enemy situation (Composition, Disposition, Strengths, weakness, vulnerabilities) (c) Updated Friendly Forces (2) Mission Statement (3) Execution (a) CDR’s intent (b) Concept (TBP) Units AO, sketch or overlay (c) Scheme of maneuver (TBP) (d) Tasks to Subordinate units (e) Fires - Fires in support of planning and R + S Plan (f) Engineers – Engineer Operations in support of Planning and R + S (g) Coordinating Instructions (1) CCIR (2) Timeline (3) Risk guidance (4) Reconnaissance to begin (5) Security measures to implement (6) Specific priorities (7) Guidance on the following: (a) Recon (b) Risk (c) Deception (d) Fire Support / Mortars (e) Mobility / countermobility (f) Rehearsals (g) Other (4) CSS (5) CMD SIG q. Step 17: Review facts and assumptions: This is done continuously. Assess impact on mission 3. Course of Action Development (Six Steps): For each COA, ID critical events and the one decisive point. Each COA must meet the 5 criteria for a COA (Suitable, Feasibility, Acceptable, Distinguishable, Complete) (FM 101-5, 2-10) Use Composition Graphics FM 101-5-1, Appendix C. a. Step 1: Analyze Relative Combat Power (RCP): Compare the dynamics of combat power for friendly and enemy and ID weakness to exploit. Fill out the RCPA Matrix (TTP). (1) Read definition: Each element of combat power (2) ID friendly and enemy facts (3) Make deductions (4) ID significant factors (5) Brainstorm TTP b. Step 2: Generate Options: Brainstorming is the preferred technique. (1) Understand MTETT-C (2) Know the end state. Normally given by the CDR. (3) Determine the Form of Maneuver (FEP-IT) or Defensive Technique (4) Determine the Decisive Point: The ME will achieve the DP. (5) Write ME beside the DP. (6) Determine where the SEs and the reserve will locate: They will allow the ME to succeed. Ensure units are nested (7) Write SE beside their locations. (8) Determine the purpose of the ME and write it beside the P: 4
  5. 5. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE (9) Determine the purpose of the SEs and reserve and write it beside the P: (10) Determine the task of the ME and write it beside the T: (11) Determine the tasks of the SEs and write it beside the T: * Explore several COA possibilities and initially determine if they meet the COA criteria (C-FADS). c. Step 3: Array Initial Forces: Place all friendly maneuver elements using the shorthand unit symbols, FM 101-5-1, C5-C6. Use blue post-its (TTP) with correct symbols. Enemy BOS elements are placed on the sketch using red post-its (TTP). (1) Determine the ratio of friendly to enemy for each task starting with the ME and work through the supporting efforts. Include the Battlefield Org. Mission Force ratios, ref. FM 34-130, B-38 (2) Determine the proposed FEBA/boundary/LOA for a defense or an LD / LC for the offense. Look closely at the terrain. (3) Determine the Deception Story: May influence unit positioning, i.e. security zone . (4) Make the initial array of forces at the end state to verify everyone understands what we will look like upon mission complete. (5) Make initial array of generic ground forces starting with the ME at the decisive point: Two levels down. You are building task organizations one level down, so you must develop COAs with units two levels down based on the enemy your immediate subordinate unit will fight. For ex. BDE staffs build task orgs for task forces' so develop COAs with companies and then group them in composition graphics. In this situation, develop the COAs against enemy MICs. This is because your creating task force task organizations. (6) Make initial array of generic ground forces for the SEs and the reserve: Two levels down. (7) Turn generics units into composition graphics. d. Step 4: Develop the Scheme of Maneuver: How arrayed forces will accomplish the CDR's intent. (1) Refine the initial array of forces using the terrain and graphic control measures: Define subordinate unit AOs (2) Covert generic units to specific types of units: i.e. light infantry, mech infantry, or armor. (3) ID the initial set of all BOS. (4) Begin writing the COA Statement. (5) ID critical events, phases of the operation (6) Address the battlefield organization: Deep, Close (recon, MBA, reserve), Rear, or Decisive, Shaping, Sustaining (7) Develop the concept of fires (8) ID priorities for CSS units. (9) ID obstacle effects. e. Step 5: Assign HQ: Assign HQs to groupings of forces creating task organization. Placed within and on top of the composition graphics. * Take into account the C2 of the entire Battlefield Org and critical events such as river crossings, POLs, and air assaults. f. Step 6: Prepare COA Statements and Sketches: This becomes your Concept of Operation. Refer to the concept paragraph in the OPORD Format as an example. * Notes: (1) Each COA must have the same Decisive Point: Given or approved by the commander. (2) Ensure you label each COA: Ex. COA 1 or COA 2. (3) If you talk about it during any briefing, then reference it on a map. (4) Always have friendly and enemy assets and timeline posted during COA development and beyond. (5) TTP: COA Development using a sketch: 5
  6. 6. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE (a) Tape 2 to 4 pieces of butcher paper together. You can use one. (b) Tape it on a wall and copy the terrain features onto it using a viewgraph machine along with highers graphics. The things that won’t change. (c) Lay a piece of overlay (1) on it and put the enemy COA on it. Think BOS, ensure all enemy stuff is on it. Use post-it notes showing enemy composite graphics identifying the number of units and type. (d) For each friendly COA, use a separate piece of overlay (2 and 3). (e) Use post-it notes for friendly composite graphics. These are easily moved around the battlefield. * COA SKETCH INCLUDES 1. Unit boundaries 2. Unit movement formations. 3. FEBA or LD / LC, PLs, LOAs, CFLs, RFLs: See SOP for naming Convention 4. R & S graphics: NAIs, TAIs, DPs 5. Ground and air AAs (movement): 6. TAAs, BPs, strong points, EAs, OBJs, SBF, ABF: 7. Obstacles and control measures 8. Fire support coordination measures: Indirect targets and target numbers 9. Designation of main and supporting efforts using composite graphics, T & P, generic HQs, 10. Location of command posts 11. Enemy known or templated locations 12. Terrain features 13. Witness marks: Top right, bottom left. 14. Label COA 1, COA 2: On top. 15. Direct fire control measures: TRPs 16. Enemy info: Major wpn sys ranges, locations dashed or solid, phases of fire, obstacles, time phased lines, decision points. * Graphics must be correct and legible: Use a template. * COA Briefing (Optional): CDR issues guidance: SEE EXAMPLE COA BRIEF - Modifies COAs to develop - ID criteria to consider - Confirms critical events to Wargame 4. Course of Action Analysis (Eight Steps): This becomes the maneuver paragraph, which is developed from your recording method. For each critical event, know the start position for each BOS element. (a) Step 1: Gather the Tools: (1) Staff estimates (2) Event and Situational Templates posted over higher's graphics. The Event Template will turn into the Decision Support Template as you add decision points and TAIs. (3) Recording method: Sync Matrix or Sketch Note (Modified Sync Matrix) (4) Completed COAs to include maneuver and R&S graphics: C-FADS (5) Means to post friendly and enemy: Blue and red Post-Its (another option is to make all your ICONs on PowerPoint and have them for the wargame) (6) Map with higher's graphics, two blank overlays, one for each COA to be updated during the war-gaming. Hopefully, one will become your operations graphics. (7) Graphic aids: smoke, chemical, FASCAM, artillery, obstacles. (8) Planning references: force ratio tables, movement tables, aircraft endurance rates, calculator. (9) COA sketches: two pieces of butcher paper taped together with the things that wont change drawn on the paper, ie. Terrain, higher's graphics. 6
  7. 7. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE (10) Blank overlays, one for each COA, to draw graphics on and to move composition graphics around during the War-Game. (11) Mission, intent, and concept one and two levels higher posted. (12) COA statements posted. (13) Recorder, sync matrix (14) Recorder, issues/notes (15) Friendly and enemy forces available charts posted. (b) Step 2: List all Friendly Forces (Ref Forces Avail Chart): Combat, CS, and CSS units that can be committed. EW, PSYOPS, Deception, OPSEC, Smoke. Post-its for all assets. One of the most important steps. (c) Step 3: List Assumptions: Review list to ensure validity and necessity, address tactical timeline, terrain and weather. (d) Step 4: List Known Critical Events and Decision Points. Decision points are linked to critical events which are linked to NAIs and TAIs. (e) Step 5: Determine Evaluation Criteria: This is used to measure the relative effectiveness / efficiency of one COA to another. CDR’s guidance and intent, Doctrinal fundamentals, Principles of War or Elements of Combat Power (f) Step 6: Select the Wargame Method: Belt, Box, Avenues in depth (g) Step 7: Select a Method to Record and Display Results: Sync Matrix, Sketch Note Method, or Modified Sync Matrix. This record will allow the staff to: build task org, sync activities, develop the DST. (h) Step 8: War-Game the Battle and Assess the Results: Analyze each critical event by identifying the tasks the force must accomplish one echelon down using assets two echelons down. Follow the cycle of action (events initiated by the side with the initiative, usually the offense) action, reaction, counteraction; ID the need for any branches (Be prepared missions during the operation) to the plan; ID TAIs, HVTs and HPTs: Begin the DST and DSM. (1) TTP: Four steps: (a) Step 1: War-Game each friendly COA against the enemies MPCOA and ID two things: First, does it meet C-FADS, if not get rid of it; second, ID advantages and disadvantages in relation to the evaluation criteria that will facilitate comparison. (b) Step 2: Conduct the War-Game Brief (Optional) (c) Step 3: Execute MDMP Step 5 (Conduct Decision Brief) (d) Step 4: War-Game the selected COA against the enemies MPCOA to ID culminating points which are directly linked to Decision Points and Branch Plans. These are driven by FFIR, i.e. loss of two MICLICs at the breach. Prepare a fill in the blank Branch Plan FRAGO. (e) Step 5: War-Game the selected COA against all other enemy COAs to ID Branch Plans driven by PIR. Prepare a fill in the blank Branch Plan FRAGO. (f) Step 6: Issue WARNO # 3 (g) Step 7: Issue the OPORD (h) Step 8: ID Sequels based on the success of the mission and guidance from higher. * War-Gaming Results: - Refine and modify the COAs to include branches and sequels: - ID COAs strengths / weaknesses - Refine location / timing of decision points - Refine Event Template / Matrix - Refine Task Org - ID tasks to subordinate CDRs - Allocation of combat, CS, and CSS assets 7
  8. 8. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE - Develop Sync Matrix and DST: Indicates when and where a decision may need to occur. - Estimate the duration of each critical event as well as the operation - ID location and commitment of reserve. - Integrate the targeting process to include the HPTL - Projecting friendly and enemy losses: Intuitive process, mission force ratios are the basis. I.E. You lose three, I lose one. - ID likely times and areas the enemy may use wpns of mass destruction - ID location of CDR and CPs - Determine requirements for deception and surprise - Develop fire support, M/CM/S, ADA, IO, & CSS plans and graphics - Developing the intell collection and dissemination plan - Refine and ID decision points, NAIs, TAIs: SOP TAI Matrix - Refine CCIR & integrate into the R&S plan - Refine C2 requirements, to include control measures - Determine movement times and tables - ID hazards, assess risks, and develop measures to reduce those risks * The Targeting Conference follows the War-Game: XO, S2, S3AIR, ALO, ADO, FSO, DS MI CDR: ID triggers * The War-Game brief (optional): Given to the XO to ensure all points are covered. 5. Course of Action Comparison: Poses minimum risks, positions the force for future ops (Sequels), flexibility (a) Decision Matrix: SOP DECMAT and DECMAT+ (b) Uses the eval criteria already identified (c) Identify sub-criteria (d) XO weights certain items as necessary (e) BOS reps compare in their BOS area (f) Identify advantages, disadvantages, and risks (g) Decision Brief: SOP BRIEF 6. Course of Action Approval: (a) CDR approves: May refine his intent, issue guidance on CS, CSS, orders prep, and rehearsals. May modify a COA. If this happens, the staff must develop the COA and War-Game the new COA. (b) WARNO # 3: (5 Para Format) Use WARNO 1 and 2 to build WARNO #3 (1) Essential info subordinates need to refine their plans (2) Higher's and the issuing HQ's Mission Statement (3) Refined CDR’s intent (4) Specified type of OPORD (5) Specified type of rehearsal (6) High Pay-Off Target List (7) Required maps (8) Enemy situation and any significant intell events (9) Orders for preliminary action, recon and surveillance (10) Coordinating Instructions (11) Service Support instructions: Any special equipment necessary, and or movements 7. Orders Production: The CDR reviews and approves orders before the staff reproduces and briefs (a) Written OPORD: SOP (b) OPORD Brief: SOP (c) SOP Matrices 8
  9. 9. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE * At a minimum, conduct two rehearsals prior to any brief: Full rehearsal and a stand up/sit down rehearsal. Leave reaction time after your first rehearsal, you will have things to correct. During your stand up / sit down rehearsal, the focus is the synchronization of the briefers and the changing of the graphics aids. 9
  10. 10. MDMP - TROOP LEADING PROCEDURE GUIDE * At a minimum, conduct two rehearsals prior to any brief: Full rehearsal and a stand up/sit down rehearsal. Leave reaction time after your first rehearsal, you will have things to correct. During your stand up / sit down rehearsal, the focus is the synchronization of the briefers and the changing of the graphics aids. 9