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Ask other to guess what is it ?- This is the visualized version of the internet.say something about the importance of the internet (some story of my life, how i get addicted to the internet)+ internet acts as an important and reliable information sourcesay something about the structure of the internet+ structured, complicated, and successful model+Internet is hierarchy structured. The complexity of the internet (click)The internet is growing fast.400% compared with ten years ago The internet gives us many benefits but also create us a lot of issues etheir
Identify the problemNot mentioning about virus, scam or identification theft.The question is who should be responsible for these issues, who will fix it, who will make the decisions. local authority or global organization Thinking about internet as a big organization, multi-international organization. need some kind of governance. who is doing it ? Who is making the decision ?
This is a general definition but I think it covers most aspect for internet governance.It covers almost every roles in the public from government to individual.
http://www.coactivate.org/projects/campaign-for.nyc/global-internet-governanceThis is not a complete picture, but somehow presents the current stateExplain each authority
Source: Council of Europe conference, Strasbourg, 18-19 April 2011It’s only a draft versionHighlight multi-stakeholder governance
To be more detail what is concerned in Internet GovernanceInternet Filtering
Internet is growing very fastMore than 2,095m users, 30.2 %In Vietnam: 1/3
China has the world's biggest online population: more than 380m users.More than sixty Internet regulations. The size of the Internet police is rumored at more than 30,000 have to submit identity cards and photos of themselves, as well as meeting regulators before their sites could be registered.The escalation of the government's effort to neutralize critical online opinion comes after a series of large anti-Japanese, anti-pollution, anti-corruption protests, and ethnic riots, many of which were organized or publicized using instant messaging services, chat rooms, and text messages.- How about VietNam? Give some websites that blocked… (danluan.org, facebook, )- The governmental authorities not only block website content but also monitor the Internet access of individuals.
Discussion that filtering is necessary. I would like to come to an agreement between us that “Filtering is necessary” Public common need
There is also a bill in US …I’m going to be a supporter for this ruleDo a SWOTStrength: easy to implement, global standardWeakness: filter just does not workOpportunity: use the money to do something elseThreat: the law will changeWhat do you think ?
Actually .xxx is a starter step for gTLD domain, such as .ipad .apple .nyc .hcmc180k for registration and 20k for renew
To extend more further about the topic ….Behind the domain story, there is also another issue with current situation of internet governance. ICANN is too effected by US-Government, there are many complains and criticized by other countries and organization. For example the .gov and .mil domain is exclusive for U.S Governance
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Internet governance and the filtering problems
LOGOINTERNET GOVERNANCEAND THE FILTERING PROBLEM Presented by Tran Quang Minh Tan BarCampSaigon – RMIT University December 11, 2011
Internet Governance - Definition “Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.” (source: wikipedia) The term Internet Governance is formally defined in June 2005 by a working group in World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) 6
Internet Governance - Authorities Internet Society Internet Corporation for Assigned (ISOC) Names and Numbers (ICANN) Internet Assigned Numbers Internet Architecture Authority (IANA) Board (IAB) Address Supporting Organization Internet Engineering (ASO) Task Force (IETG) (IESG) Country Code Names Supporting Organization (CCNSO) Internet Research Task Force Generic Names Supporting (IRTF) (IRSG) Organization (GGNSO) Network Solutions - Central Domain Database Accredited Registrars 7Source: coactive.org - Root Server System
Internet Governance - Authorities Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN was formed in 1998. ICANN is an acronym for the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a global multi- stakeholder organization that was created and empowered through actions by the U.S. government and its Department of Commerce. It coordinates the Internet DNS, IP addresses and autonomous system numbers; which involves a continued management of these evolving systems and the protocols that underly them. The Internet Society The Internet Society (ISOC) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education and policy. They are dedicated to ensuring the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of people throughout the world. 8
Internet Governance - Principles1. Human rights, democracy and rule of law2. Multi-Stakeholder governance3. Responsibilities of States4. Empowerment of Internet Users5. Global nature of the internet6. Integrity of the Internet7. Decentralized management8. Open architecture9. Network neutrality10. Cultural and linguistic diversity(Source: Council of Europe conference, Strasbourg, 18-19 April 2011) 9
Internet Governance - Framework Source: nav6.org 10
Internet Governance - Concerns Manage Internet Infrastructure + Physical Infrastructure + IP Addresses, Domain Names Define protocol and standard + IETF, W3C Promote Internet Access + Especially in developing country Security + Anonymity, Privacy Content Regulation + Child-abusing protection + Copyright, Pirate Software, Music + Filtering / Censoring 11
Internet Filtering - Definition Internet filtering normally refers to the technical approaches to control access to information on the Internet. An Internet filter is hardware or software that restricts the information that is delivered over the Internet. Filters can greatly reduce the flow of harmful content onto your computer. Filters can be installed on the servers of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or proxy service, as part of a local area network, or on individual computers. They can block access to websites, e-mail, chat, or other Internet-based communications based on category, site, or content. 13
Types of Content Filtered Political reasons - Content that expresses views in opposition to those of the current government, or is related to human rights, freedom of expression, minority rights. Religious reasons Social reasons - commonly pornography, information about gay and lesbian issues, and sex education information 14
Internet Filtering - ImplementationHow filtering is implemented- Domain filtering eg. http://facebook.com- IP Address filtering eg. 220.127.116.11- URL filtering eg. http://www.facebook.com/ BarCampSaigon- Keyword filtering eg. “Tiananmen” in China- Ad-hoc filtering eg. Ebay Vietnam 15
2011 Best Internet Filter SoftwareSource: http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/ 16
Global Status - Political contentPolitical content: Content that expresses views in opposition to those ofthe current government, or is related to human rights, freedom ofexpression, minority rights, and religious movements. 17Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-pol.html
Global Status - Social contentSocial content: Content related to sexuality, gambling, and illegal drugs andalcohol, as well as other topics that may be socially sensitive or perceived asoffensive. 18Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-soc.html
Global Status - Conflict & securityConflict & security: Content related to armed conflicts, border disputes,separatist movements, and militant groups. 19Source: http://map.opennet.net/filtering-consec.html
China - the leader in internet filtering Source: http://opennet.net/research/profiles/chinaChina + Internet = Chinternet 20
Internet Filtering – Problem Internet Performance Eg. In Australia from 2% - 75% (http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib310554/ isp-level_internet_content_filtering_trial-report.pdf) Ethic / Freedom of speech / Human Rights Inefficiency Jasmine Revolution in Egypt Aggressive filter: block the wrong content because of over-filtering 2010: 255 million websites, 1.97 billion – Internet users worldwide (June 2010). (source: http://royal.pingdom.com/2011/01/12/internet-2010-in-numbers/) Eg. Website of Log Cabin Republicans was blocked by U.S.-based SmartFilter as pornography User can by pass by using proxy Eg. public proxy servers or tools 21
Internet Filtering – Problem (cont.) Each country implement its own of filtering engine costly, ineffectiveEg. Australia: Based on the Governments budgeting of $44.5 million to implement the filteringscheme, this means the policy will cost $90,000 per URL.(source: http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/web/2009/06/03/1243708489312.html) Global problems: criminal, virus, sexuality, gambling, andillegal drugs and alcohol, security…Should filtering implemented byindividual or as a global standard? 22
Discussion – .XXXSexually-Explicit WebsiteOperated under ICM RegistryBrief history First proposed in 2000 (rejected) Resubmitted again in 2004 (rejected) Another time in 2007 (rejected) Finally approved in 2011 a 10-years effortICM is expected to make over 200m / year Source: Wikipedia 23
Discussion – .XXXCyber Safety for Kids Act of 2006 Raised by Senator Max Baucus and Mark Pryor Require website with explicit sexual content MUST operate under .xxx domain Should we consider .xxx domain as a standard for sexual filtering ? 24
Discussion - .XXXIOMO: .XXX is not feasible for a filtering standard How to define sexual content ? How to enforce the standard globally ? Commercialized-motivation ? 25
Conclusion There is a need for Internet Governance, but is not a simple subject. The Internet filtering is costly, ineffective now. There is a greater need for cooperation between various branches of government and law enforcement in and between countries. The trend: build up the standards by + An Independent Organization + By cooperation governments Our opinion: - Independent Organization (ICANN reform, ITU…) - And… 27
References Local Nets: Filtering and the Internet Governance Problem, John Palfrey, (Chapter in Jack Balkin et al., The Global Flow of Information) September, 2005 Wikipedia OpenNET Intialtive, website http://opennet.net CoActive.org/.NYC Project ICANN, website http://www.icann.org 28