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Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4

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Nutrition food-nutrition-and-health-1198017357690195-4

  1. 1. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 1 Chapter 1 Food, Nutrition, and Health
  2. 2. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 2 Chapter 1Chapter 1 Lesson 1.1Lesson 1.1
  3. 3. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 3 Key ConceptsKey Concepts • Optimal personal and community nutrition is a major component of health promotion. • Certain nutrients in food are essential to our health and well-being.
  4. 4. Tell me why…..?Tell me why…..? How do these nutritional objectives relate to nursing care? Why is it important for health care professionals to exemplify optimal nutrition both in regard to themselves and their clients? Besides carbohydrates, fats and proteins, what other nutrients are essential for health? How does nutrition relate to physical activity in terms of homeostasis? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 4
  5. 5. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 5 Nutrition and DieteticsNutrition and Dietetics • Nutrition  Food people eat and how bodies use it • Nutritional science  Scientific knowledge on human’s food requirements • Dietetics  Health profession for applying nutritional science (Cont'd…)
  6. 6. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 6 Nutrition and DieteticsNutrition and Dietetics (…Cont’d) • Registered Dietitian (RD)  Nutrition authority on the health care team  Also referred to as clinical nutrition specialist or public health nutritionist
  7. 7. More questionsMore questions • How do the terms nutritional science and dietetics differ? • Which governmental agencies study nutritional science and make public health recommendations? • Name some recent nutritional discoveries or topics in the news pertaining to nutrition • How have nutritional recommendations changed over time? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 7
  8. 8. …………?.....?..... Is the high-protein, low carbohydrate trend backed up by scientific knowledge? How can a consumer make sense of dietary recommendations in the face of changing guidelines? What type of education and training does a RD receive? How do nurses and RDs work together in a hospital or clinical setting? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 8
  9. 9. …………………………………………?????????????? • What resources can an RD provide to assist with a nursing plan of care? • How do surgery, infection, and different developmental stages affect nutritional requirements? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 9
  10. 10. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 10 Health and WellnessHealth and Wellness • Good nutrition is essential to good health • Health must include meeting basic human needs • Wellness seeks the full development of potential for all persons
  11. 11. Do you know???Do you know??? • Why is nutrition a component of health and wellness? • What uses of food are there other to satisfy hunger? • How do nutritional requirements change during a person’s life? • If a person is malnourished, how does that affect his or her functioning? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 11
  12. 12. ?????????? • How can a nurse incorporate nutritional science and education into a plan of care? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 12
  13. 13. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 13 Wellness Movement andWellness Movement and National Health GoalsNational Health Goals • Response to medical care system’s focus on illness and disease • Response to rising health costs • Focuses on lifestyle and personal choices
  14. 14. Things to ponder…Things to ponder… • How does wellness approach differ from the traditional medical model of health care? • How can preventive care reduce health costs? • Give an example of a disease process directly related to nutritional status. • If disease is a result of various factors, how can lifestyle life style affect overall health and wellness? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 14
  15. 15. ???????????????????????????????? • Name a life style choice that promotes nutritional health. • Name a life style choice that reduces nutritional health. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 15
  16. 16. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 16 Traditional and PreventiveTraditional and Preventive Approaches to HealthApproaches to Health • Traditional  Attempts change only when illness or disease already exist  Little value for lifelong positive health • Preventive  Identify risk factors  Allows people to choose behaviors to minimize risk of disease
  17. 17. Risk factorsRisk factors • What are risk factors for CVD? DM? Ca? • What support organizations promote nutritional wellness? • Compare and contrast the traditional and preventive models of health care. What contributed to the shift in focus? Why does involving personal choice and preference support a healthy lifestyle? • What benefits over time does optimal nutrition provide? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 17
  18. 18. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 18 Good NutritionGood Nutrition • Well-developed body • Ideal weight for body composition • Good muscle development • Smooth skin, glossy hair, clear and bright eyes • Mental and physical alertness • Ability to resist disease • Increased life span
  19. 19. What is Ideal?What is Ideal? • How is the ideal body weight calculated? • Why does poor nutrition impact the immune system? • How can you assess malnutrition in your client? • Why is nutrition essential during prenatal development? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 19
  20. 20. ?????????????????????? • Why is nutritional status related to disease prevention and recovery from surgery or other trauma? • How do exercise and food relate to good nutrition? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 20
  21. 21. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 21 Nutrients in FoodNutrients in Food • Provide energy • Build tissue • Regulate metabolic processes • Individual nutrients have many special metabolic functions • No nutrient ever works alone
  22. 22. ???????????????????????????? • What are the primary nutrients? • What is the body’s main source of food and how is it stored? • What is metabolism? • How does metabolism affect the body weight? • Provide and example of nutrients that work with each other? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 22
  23. 23. ?????????????????????????????????????? • What are examples of diseases that result from a mineral or other nutrient dificiency? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 23
  24. 24. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 24 Energy SourcesEnergy Sources • Carbohydrates  Primary source of fuel for heat and energy  Maintain body’s back-up store of quick energy  Should provide 45%-65% of total kilocalories (Cont'd…)
  25. 25. ???????????????????????? • What are recommended sources of complex carbohydrates? • What is the pathophysiology of diabetes and how does it relate to carbohydrates? • What type of carbohydrates should be limited in the diet? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 25
  26. 26. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 26 Energy SourcesEnergy Sources (…Cont’d) • Fats  Animal and plant sources  Secondary (storage) form of heat and energy  Should provide no more than 20%-35% of total kilocalories (Cont'd…)
  27. 27. ?????????????????? • List plant and animal sources of fats • What is cholesterol? • What are the risks associated with a high fat diet? • Where is fat stored in the body? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 27
  28. 28. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 28 Energy SourcesEnergy Sources (…Cont’d) • Proteins  Source of energy when supply from carbohydrates and fats is insufficient  Primary function is tissue building  Should provide 10%-35% of total kilocalories
  29. 29. ?????????????????????????????? • What are proteins composed of? • What are examples of foods high in proteins? • How do vegetarians get enough protein? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 29
  30. 30. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 30 Tissue BuildingTissue Building • Proteins  Provide amino acids • Necessary for building and repairing tissues • Vitamins and minerals  Vitamin C for tissue building  Calcium and phosphorus • Building and maintaining bone (Cont'd…)
  31. 31. ?????????????????????????? • List foods high in vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous and iron? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 31
  32. 32. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 32 Tissue BuildingTissue Building (…Cont’d) • Iron  Builds hemoglobin in the blood • Fatty acids  Build central fat substance of cell walls
  33. 33. ?????????????????????????????? • What are conditions related to too little iron? Too much iron? • How does calcium relate to osteoporosis? • Why is fat important to brain development? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 33
  34. 34. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 34 Regulation and ControlRegulation and Control • Vitamins  Function as coenzyme factors • Components of cell enzymes in governing chemical reaction during cell metabolism • Minerals  Also serve as coenzyme factors (Cont'd…)
  35. 35. ?????????????? • What are food sources for vitamins and minerals? • Why are supplements prescribed during pregnancy? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 35
  36. 36. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 36 Regulation and ControlRegulation and Control (…Cont’d) • Other nutrients  Water • Essential base for all metabolic processes  Fiber • Regulates passage of food material through GI tract
  37. 37. ???????????????????????? • Why is water essential for life? • What foods are high in fiber? • What is the relationship between colon cancer and low-fiber diet? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 37
  38. 38. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 38 Types of NutritionTypes of Nutrition • Optimal nutrition  Obtained from a varied diet  Desired amounts should be balanced • Undernutrition  Less than desired amounts of nutrients  Limits work capacity, immune system, mental activity (Cont'd…)
  39. 39. ???????????????????????? • How can heath professionals promote variety and moderation? • What are risk factors for under nutrition? • What federal programs address under nutrition? Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 39
  40. 40. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 40 Types of NutritionTypes of Nutrition (…Cont’d) • Malnutrition  Reserves depleted  Nutrient and energy intake insufficient • Overnutrition  Excess nutrient and energy intake over time  Produces harmful gross body weight  Excessive amounts of nutrient supplements over time
  41. 41. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 41 Chapter 1Chapter 1 Lesson 1.2Lesson 1.2
  42. 42. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 42 Key ConceptsKey Concepts • Food and nutrient guides help us to plan a balanced diet according to individual needs and goals.
  43. 43. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 43 Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes • Published by the National Academy of Sciences • Updated every 5-10 years • Includes recommendations for each gender and age group (Cont'd…)
  44. 44. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 44 Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes (…Cont’d) • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)  Daily intake of nutrients that meet needs of almost all healthy individuals • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)  Intake level that meets needs of half the individuals in a specific group (Cont'd…)
  45. 45. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 45 Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes (…Cont’d) • Adequate intake (AI)  Used when not enough evidence to establish the RDA • Tolerable upper intake level (UL)  Sets maximum intake unlikely to pose adverse health risks (Cont'd…)
  46. 46. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 46 Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes (…Cont’d)
  47. 47. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 47 Food Guide PyramidFood Guide Pyramid • Simple practical education tool • Basis for general meal planning and food- intake pattern • Promotes carbohydrates while limiting fat intake • Daily food-group choices may be spread over three or more meals (Cont'd…)
  48. 48. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 48 Food Guide PyramidFood Guide Pyramid (…Cont’d)
  49. 49. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 49 Dietary Guidelines forDietary Guidelines for AmericansAmericans • Issued every five years • Aim for fitness • Build a healthy base • Choose sensibly
  50. 50. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 50 Principles ofPrinciples of Nutrition TherapyNutrition Therapy • Weight management • Sodium control • Proper diet of minerals • DASH diet • Additional lifestyle factors
  51. 51. Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 51 Dietary Guidelines forDietary Guidelines for AmericansAmericans

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