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Library Classification

An introductory presentation on the concept of Library Classification by Dr. Keshava, Professor, Department of Studies and Research in Library and Information Science, Tumkur University, Karnataka, INDIA.

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Library Classification

  1. 1. Classification Derived from “Latin” word “Classic” Meaning Process of grouping Putting together (un) like entities Arrangements of ideas /objects in a systematic order
  2. 2. Library Classification Arrangement of documents in the most helpful and permanent order To classify the subjects of the documents. Classification is a process of grouping like entities to gather and separating unlike entities. Arrangement of books on shelves or description of them in the manner which is most helpful to those who read - W.C.B Sayers Definitions
  3. 3. Classification in its simplest statement is, the putting together of similar things or more fully described, it is the arranging of things according to likeness and unlikeness - Margaret Mann Library classification is the translation of the name of the subject of a book into a preferred artificial language of ordinal numbers, and the individualization of several books dealing with the same specific subject by means of a further set of ordinal numbers which represent some feelings (features) of the books other than their thought content.” -SRR
  4. 4. Cardinal numbers Used for counting purpose Ordinal numbers Used for arranging or ordering things (Library classification uses ordinal numbers) Numbers Notation Ordered serial of symbols representing terms Pure - DDC Mixed - UDC, CC
  5. 5. Dichotomy Division into two (Binary classification - 0,1) Further divided into two (Tree of porphyry) Structure of Subjects Living Organism Plants Animals Non-Flowing Flowering Vertebrates Invertebrates
  6. 6. Decachotomy - Division into Ten (DDC, UDC) Polychotomy - Division into Many - CA Cutter introduced in expensive classification (S R Ranganathan’s CC) Decachotomy - Continuous growth of new subjects - Dynamic
  7. 7. Classification Base Dichotomy Immanuel Kant Trichotomy Hegel Decotomy Melvil Dewey Trivia Francis Bacon Polychotomy S R Ranganathan
  8. 8. Pattern of Library Classification 1. Analytico Synthetic Classification (or) Faceted a. Rigidly faceted - CC upto 3rd ed. b. Almost faceted - Bibliographic classification (Bliss) - UDC c. Almost freely faceted - CC - 6th - 5th - 4th d. Freely faceted - CC - 7th 2. Enumerative Classification a. Almost enumerated - DDC 21st - Subject classification (Brown) b. Fully - International Classification (Rider) c. Purely - LOC Classification
  9. 9. Schemes of Library Classification SNo Scheme Division Year 1 DDC Melvil Dewey 1876 2 Expansive CA Cutter 1891 3 Library of Congress LOC 1904 4 UDC Paul Otlet Henry La Fontain + FID 1905 5 Subject J D Brown 1906 6 Colon S R Ranganathan 1933 7 Bibliographic H E Bliss 1935 8 Soviet Library Commission of Academy of Sciences of USSR 1959 9 International Rider 1965 10 BSO FID 1978 11 Brunet Scheme 12 Standard Classification
  10. 10. Principles of Classification Literary warrant E W Hulme Alternative location H E Bliss Seminal mnemonics S R Ranganathan Decimal fraction notation Melvil Dewey One place theory J D Brown
  11. 11. Mnemonics Derived from ‘Greek’ word Meaning - Aids to memory Types 1. Alphabetical (CC) D5135 Y Yamaha Motor Cycle) 2. Schedule (DDC) 378.54 Higher education in India 331.2954 Wages in India (CC) L17:4 Diseases of neck L185:4 Diseases of eye 3. Systematic (Guiding principles) Helpful sequence (order) 4. Seminal (Use one and the same digit to denote seminally equivalent concepts in whatever subject they may occur) (CC) Disease & social pathology represented by 4
  12. 12. Devices in Library Classification 1. Alphabetical Device 5135 Y Yamaha Motor Cycle L9C Child Medicine 2. Chronological Device 0111,2J64 - Shakespeare 1564 - Year of birth of Shakespeare 2:51M76 - DDC (1876) 2:51N33 - CC (1933)
  13. 13. 3. Geographical Device CC - V44 - History of India DDC - Criminal law of Modern India – 345.54 4. Subject Device DDC - 026.61 Medical Libraries CC - 24(Z) Law Libraries 5. Super Imposition Device (CC) 1. L18-7 Nervous System of Head (Isolate numbers taken from the same foci) 2. V44-56 British Territory in India (This device not used in DDC)
  14. 14. Common Isolates An isolate ideas denoted by the same isolate terms and represented by the same isolate number DDC Standard subdivisions 320.03 Dictionary of Political science 336.240954 Income tax in India CC ACI PCI
  15. 15. DDC 1st ed. 1876 Melvil Devil (43 pages) 12 - prefatory matter, 12 table, 18 index 2nd ed. 1885 (314 pages) 11th ed. 988 pages 14th ed. 1927 pages 15th ed. 1952 Standard edition 16th ed. 1958 2 volumes (Table, Index) 17th ed. 1965 2 volumes 18th ed. 1971 3 volumes 19th ed. 1979 3 volumes 20th ed. 4 volumes (First) 1 Introduction & Auxiliary Table 2, 3 Schedules 4 Relation Index Divided into 10 large classes (1st summery) 0 General 1 Philosophy 2 Religion 3 Social Science 4 Language 5 Natural Science 6 Useful Arts 7 Fine Arts 8 Literature 9 History Auxiliary Tables 1 Standard Subdivision 2 Arts 3 Subdivision of Individual literature 4 Subdivision of languages 5 Retail, Ethic, National Groups 6 Languages 7 Persons
  16. 16. UDC 1st ed. 1904 (French Language) 1905 First complete edition Based on DDC (MC) Common Auxiliaries (Form, Place etc) (035) Handbook (540) India Special auxiliaries (Listed in some places) Parallel Division Same notation to denote a given concepts in more than one place. (Mnemonics) Decimal point (•) placed after every 3 digits for visual aid Relative Index
  17. 17. CC 1st ed. 1933 Colon upto 3rd ed. (only connecting symbol used) 2nd ed.1939 3rd ed. 1950 4th ed. 1952 5th ed. 1957 6th ed. 1960 7th ed. 1987 15 Indicator digits 4 New digits (* + “ &)
  18. 18. Fundamental Categories P , (Comma) M ; (Semi colon) E : (Colon) S . (Dot) T ’ (Inverted comma) Rounds (in P,M,E) [E] [2P] : [2E] [ 3P] Repetition of time [P, M, E] Levels Only in personality facet King Lear 0 111, 2 J64, K language Form Author Work
  19. 19. Basic Laws (6) Law of Interpretation Impartiality Symmetry Parsimony Local Variation Osmosis
  20. 20. Canons Idea plan (15) further (4+3+4+2+2) Verbal plan (4) Notational plan (24) (12+5+4+3) Totally 43 Canons Helpful sequence 8 Principles Facet sequence 4 Principles whole organ (A B) Cow – Calf (L 1, 2) wall picture Act and action – actor tool (A B C D) L 44 : 4 : 6
  21. 21. Relation between subjects or components of subjects Modes of Formation of Subjects 1. Fission The division of the whole into multiple parts Adding new subjects without affecting the basic subject a) Dissection (Asia – China, India, Pakistan) b) Denudation (Asia – China, India, Tamilnadu)
  22. 22. 2. Fusion (Basic subjects are be obtained) Two or more primary basic subjects are fused together in such a way that each of them loses its individuality Example: Biochemistry (Biology and Chemistry) Medical Jurisprudence (Medicine and Law)
  23. 23. 3. Lamination The process of overlaying one facet on another Kind I: Example: 1. Flowering Plants Basic Subject Isolate Facet Isolate Facet Botany Plants Flowering Kind II: 1. Urban Youths 2. Middle class rural Women (Combination of isolate ideas)
  24. 24. 4. Loose Assemblage (Complex Subjects) Kind I : Inter-Subject (Economics and Political Science) Kind II : Intra-Facet (Cataloguing and Classification) Kind III : Intra-Array (CC and DDC) 5. Agglomeration (Adding together) (Formerly Partial Comprehension) Kind I : Consecutive basic subjects (Physical Sciences, Biological Science) Kind II : Non-Consecutive basic subjects (History and Economics)
  25. 25. 6. Cluster (Subject bundle) Concentration on a particular point Example: Gandhiana, Indology 7. Distillation (Pure subjects evolved) Example: Research Methodology
  26. 26. Common Isolates in CC ACI PCI Personality Space Matter Energy Time CI CI CI CI CI Generally added g - criticism after space (preceded by : colon) e4 - Higher education Applicable Applicable Applicable Before After space After time Space facet a- Bibliography s- statistics s- statistics k- encyclopedia (if periodical) (if strong) t4 - survey
  27. 27. Systems and Specials Systems Basic Class + Chronological number LB Ayurveda (originated between 9999 to 1000 BC) LC Sidha (originated between 999 to 1 BC) LD Unani (originated between 1 to 999 AD) LL Homeopathy (originated in 18th century) LM Naturopathy (originated in 19th century) Specials Basic class + Empty digit (9) + Type (Enumeration) L9C Child Medicine L9F Female Medicine L9X Industrial Medicine
  28. 28. Phase Relation Nature of Relation Levels (3) Inter Subject Intra Subject Intra Array General a j t Bias b k u Comparison c m v Difference d m w Tool e p x Influencing g r y Tool phase relation introduced in 7th ed.
  29. 29. Steps in classification 9 Steps (0 - 8) 0 Raw Title 1 Expressive title 2 Title in Kernal terms 3 Analytical title 4 Transformed title 5 Title in standard terms 6 Title in focal number 7 Class number 8 Verification
  30. 30. Author & Book E W Hulme Principles of Book Classification W C B Sayers Cannons per classification S R Ranganathan Prolegomena to library classification E C Richardson Classification theoretical principles H E Bliss Organizational of knowledge in library J Mills Modern outline to Library Classification
  31. 31. 3 PLANES OF WORK-3 PLANES OF WORK- 1952 SRR1952 SRR IDEA- Class(used in the idea plane) Verbal- Subject Notational- Class number
  32. 32. Working towards the dvt of a dynamic theory of library clsn led to the fact that the design and application of a scheme for lib clsn involves work in the IDEA,VERBAL and NOTATIONAL plane, which are separable and can be carried out independently.
  33. 33. IDEA PLANEIDEA PLANE Man > sankrit> mana=to think. The organ of thinking is called Manas=mind. Mind- place of origin of ideas. SRR-idea is the product of thinking. Ideas = communication through the medium language.
  34. 34. The basic work of lib clsn takes place at the idea plane. The efficiency of a scheme will largely depend upon the quality of theory of lib clsn used for work in the idea plane . Ideas must be represented at the verbal plane in standardized and precise term.
  35. 35. VERBAL PLANEVERBAL PLANE Human being possess the capacity to create ideas. Capacity to develop and articulate language as a medium for communication of the ideas. The verbal plane involves expression of concepts in a natural language. Since ideas are formed faster than words, every natural languages proves to be inadequate.
  36. 36. Work at the verbal plane has to be carried out for each natural language separately. The terms used should be current in use. Therefore, there need to be develop technical terminology free from homonyms and synonyms for each discipline.
  37. 37. Require cooperation between specialists and linguists. It would be better if international nomenclature is established and adopted for use. To overcome the problems of natural languages, some classification schemes add an annotation after the terms.
  38. 38. For this purpose, SRR has suggested that a classification should follow the canon of both context and enumeration for the designing of schedules for clsn.
  39. 39. NOTATIONAL PLANENOTATIONAL PLANE Continuous attempts are being made to make language precise. Often words are replace by symbols. Lib Clsn: deals with artificial language of ordinal digits, which is called classificatory language. These ordinal digits are used as helpful symbols for the arrangement of documnts.
  40. 40. NL is used by common man but classificatory language is not widely use. Classificatory Language is restricted only to arrangement of subject, isolates and commodities. A classificatory is a controlled language, controlled by the classificationist. It doesn’t develop homonyms & synonyms
  41. 41. Universe of knowledge is dynamic CL must be developed to meet the onslaught of the Uk The notational system for such a language must be versatile. The work at notational plane must be carried out continuously so that notational plane would be able to fulfill the demands of the idea plane.
  42. 42. Canons for Idea PlaneCanons for Idea Plane a. Canons for characteristics b. Canons for succession of characteristics c. Canons for array d. Canons for chain e. Canons for filiatory sequence.
  43. 43. Canons for characteristicsCanons for characteristics Each characteristics of an associated scheme of characteristics used in a scheme of library classification should satisfy following four canons: a. Canon of differentiation b.Canon of relevance c. Canon of ascertainability d.Canon of permanence.
  44. 44. Canons for succession of characteristicsCanons for succession of characteristics The succession of characteristics in the associated scheme of characteristic should satisfy the following three canons: a. Canon of concomitance b.Canon of relevant succession c. Canon of consistent succession.
  45. 45. Canons for Verbal PlaneCanons for Verbal Plane Natural language is imperfect since there is vagueness in the meaning and not free from the incidence of homonyms and synonym. Therefore, in classificatory language precise terms with their uniqueness in meaning should be used. SRR formulated 4 canons for verbal plane. Both classificationist and classifier must follow these canons for work at the verbal plane.
  46. 46. Canons for Verbal PlaneCanons for Verbal Plane a. Canon of context. b. Canon of enumeration c. Canon of currency d. Canon of Reticence
  47. 47. Canons for Notational PlaneCanons for Notational Plane A notational system consists of ordinal numbers representing classes n a scheme for classification. The notational system used for the classification of universe of subjects should follow the basic canons of notations.
  48. 48. Canons in the notational planeCanons in the notational plane a. Canons for uniqueness of notation i. Canon of Synonym ii. Canon of homonym b. Positive and its negative canons.
  49. 49. Canon of SynonymCanon of Synonym “the class number of a subject in a system of class numbers and the isolate number of an isolate idea in a system of isolate numbers should be unique” CC avoids the provision of synonyms class numbers. However one violation is there under [S] isolate i.e. ‘2’ Mother country. Library can use ‘2’ & 44 for India.
  50. 50. Canon of HomonymCanon of Homonym “the subject represented by a class numbers in a system of class numbers and the isolate idea represented by an isolate number in a system of isolate numbers should be unique” Each class number should represent one and only one subject. DDC violates-954 UDC,CC avoids homonyms
  51. 51. Positive and its negative canonsPositive and its negative canons 10 canons which are to be satisfied by the notational system of any scheme for classification. These canons fall into five pair in such a way that each pair consists of one canon and of its negation.
  52. 52. Positive and its negative canonsPositive and its negative canons i. Canon of relativity and canon of uniformity ii. Canon of Hierarchy and canon of non- hierarchy iii. Canon of mixed notation and canon of pure notation iv. Canon of faceted notation and canon of non- faceted notation. v. Canon of co-extensiveness and canon of under extensiveness.
  53. 53. PRINCIPLES FOR FACET SEQUENCEPRINCIPLES FOR FACET SEQUENCE WALL PICTURE PRINCIPLE WHOLE ORGAN PRINCIPLE COW-CALF PRINCIPLE COMMODITY RAW MATERIAL TRANSFORMATION PRINCIPLE ACTAND-ACTION-ACTOR-TOOL PRINCIPLE
  54. 54. Wall Picture PrincipleWall Picture Principle If two facets A and B of a subject are such that the concept behind B will not be operative unless the concept behind A is conceeded. CC-Treatment of human beings
  55. 55. Whole Organ PrincipleWhole Organ Principle If in a subject, facet B is an organ of facet A then A should preceed B CC- President of India President is an organ of India
  56. 56. Cow Calf PrincipleCow Calf Principle If a facet A and another facet B belonging to the same subject are not to be separated though they distinct from each other and thus separable, A and B should be kept together in the same round, even as a milchy cow and its unweaned calf are not separately sold out though they are distinct entities and thus separable, but are kept together in possession of the same owner. Design of roof work in rainforced concrete buildings-D36,6:4 both [P]kept in same round.
  57. 57. Commodity Raw Material TransformationCommodity Raw Material Transformation PrinciplePrinciple If in a class A is a commodity out of the raw material forming B and by the process of transformation forming C, then three facets should be arranged in the sequence A,B,C. Process of the spinning of cotton Textile, Cotton, Yarn and Spinning.
  58. 58. Actand –Action-Actor-Tool PrincipleActand –Action-Actor-Tool Principle If in a subject, facet B denotes the action on facet A by facet C, with facet D as the tool, then the four facets should be arranged in the sequence A,B,C,D A-Actand B-Action C-Actor D-Tool
  59. 59. Eg. Lung TuberculosisEg. Lung Tuberculosis Medicine (BS) Lung[P] Disease [E] Tuberculosis[2P] The ‘disease’ is an Action, ‘Lung’ [has been acted upon,]-Actand Tuberculosis [acts on lung]-Actor [BS][P]:[E][2P] L45:421
  60. 60. NOTATIONNOTATION In library clsn notation is an artificial language in which the subject of a document is translated or coded. Different types of notations are being used by different schemes for the purpose of clsn of books.
  61. 61. SRRSRR Notation: a notation as a system of ordinal number used to represent the classes in a scheme of clsn.
  62. 62. EC RichardsonEC Richardson Notation is a shorthand sign
  63. 63. Notation is an artificial language or ordinal numbers which represent various classes in a scheme for clsn. For more helpful arrangement a notation may consists of more than one type of symbols. Hence, notation should act as a mechanical device for arrangement of books on shelves.
  64. 64. Need/RequisiteNeed/Requisite To arrange the documents in a helpful sequence for its quick retrieval notation is very much needed in library classification. Ranganathan has given some reasons which justify the need of notation in library clsn which are:
  65. 65. i.i. Unhelpfulness of alphabetical sequenceUnhelpfulness of alphabetical sequence  Since alphabetical arrangement of subjects by their names is not helpful, it must be ruled out. Eg if we arrange ten main classes of DDC according to alphabetical arrangement by their names then Pure Sciences will fall between Philosophy and Religion. Similarly Religion and Sociology will falls between pure science and Technology.  Thus it would lead to a unhelpful sequence. Thus it would lead to a unhelpful sequence. Rather it would be helpful, if Pure Science and Technology could be kept together.
  66. 66. ii.ii. Effect of change in name of subject.Effect of change in name of subject. Since the name of subjects are not stable i.e. they keep on changing from time to time, alphabetical arrangement of subjects by their names to mechanize the arrangement must be ruled out. Eg. Physics was earlier named as Natural Philosopy.
  67. 67. iii. Effect of synonyms on alphabetical sequence.iii. Effect of synonyms on alphabetical sequence. Since the use of synonyms i.e. subjects with more than one name is a common feature, alphabetical arrangement of subjects by their names to mechanise the arrangement must be ruled out. Eg. Acoustic and Sound are equivalent terms denoting the same branch of Physics.
  68. 68. iv. Effect of homonyms on alphabetical sequence.iv. Effect of homonyms on alphabetical sequence. Since the use of homonyms i.e. one and the same term used to denote a variety of ideas in a natural languge is a common feature, alphabetical arrangement of subjects by their names to mechanise the arrangement must be ruled out. Eg. Term ‘Number’ represent integer, rational number, irrational number, transcedental number, imaginary and complex number and so on.
  69. 69. v. Effect of multiplicity of languages on alphabeticalv. Effect of multiplicity of languages on alphabetical sequence.sequence. Since the alphabetical position of a subject would vary with the language from which the name is taken alphabetical arrangement must be ruled out. Eg. In english ‘Dry Cell’ would go the ‘D’ group and ‘Tuning Fork to the ‘T’ group. But in German the former goes to ‘T’ group and the latter to the ‘S’ group.
  70. 70. Thus it becomes clear that alphabetical arrangement fails to mechanize the arrangment in a preferred helpful sequenc, and there is necessity of use of ordinal numbers in notation.
  71. 71. Functions of notationFunctions of notation  Helps in mechanical arrangement of documents.  Serves as a guide to the sequence of terms and fixes their relative positions.  Rearranging of documents when misplaced.  Allows mechanical reference to be made from any catalogue entry to the material on the shelves.  Notation with its mnemonic qualities assists the library staff to remember the sequence of divisions within a class. Hospitality in library clsn can be secured by manipulating notation.
  72. 72. functionsfunctions Helps in the arrangement of entries in bibliographies, documentation lists Useful for preparing various guides used in the library.
  73. 73. Types of notationTypes of notation Types of notatin depends upon the various digits used in making the notation. On this basis notation can be of two types. 1. Pure notation 2. Mixed Noation
  74. 74. Pure NotationPure Notation When the notational system of any classification scheme uses only one type of symbols or digits, it is called pure nation. Eg Arabic numerals or Roman Capital or Roman Smalls.
  75. 75. Mixed NotationMixed Notation When the notational system of any classification scheme uses more than one type of digits or symbols, it is called as mixed notation. Eg. Indo-arabic numerals and Roman Capitals and Roman Smalls.
  76. 76. QualitiesQualities SRRSRR 1. Brevity 2. Speed of writing 3. Pronoucibility 4. Facet formation 5. Hospitable to new topics
  77. 77. SayersSayers Brevity Simplicity Flexibility Mnemonic Speed of wrinting Expressiveness Synthesis
  78. 78. BrevityBrevity In a class number, brevity is a desirable quality. In library, for compactness books are usually made to stand side by side on their lower edges with only the spines visible. Therefore, class number of a book must be written on its spine. Since the average thickness of book is only one inch, the digits of class number should not be longer than an inch the digits of class number should not be longer than an inch and preferably shorter.
  79. 79. This can be achieved by the use of wide base such as alphabetical base and allocation of symbols to the classes keeping in view their sub-classes.
  80. 80. Speed of writingSpeed of writing A notation should admits of speedy writing since the class number of each book is entered in several places such as on the spine, the date label, the back of the title page, in secret page, in accession register etc.
  81. 81. SimplicitySimplicity Notation should be as simple as possible i.e. it should be easy to write to pronounce and to remember. Here ‘easy to write’ indicates that each symbol or sign used in national system should be clearly identifiable from one another. An easy to pronounce indicates that notation should be easy to read. Easy to remember is also an important quality
  82. 82. ExpressivenessExpressiveness The notation which expresses the structure of the scheme is known as expressive, hierachial or structural. It helps the users to find his way up in a systematic order in the structure of the classification scheme. Good notation should reflect both coordination and subordination relationship
  83. 83. Flexibility/HospitalityFlexibility/Hospitality There has been continuous growth in various field of universe of knowledge. Therefore, notation should possess the quality of hospitality so that it can accomadate any number of new subjects. Hospitality means flexibility, expansibility or adjustability. In CC,DDC,UDC sufficient hospitality has been provided in array & chain
  84. 84. SynthesisSynthesis Synthesis means number building by taking components of the number from different part of the schedules. Both faceted and enumerative schemes of classification synthesis components from different parts to form compound numbers. However synthesis is more pronounced in faceted schemes of classification.
  85. 85. DDCDDC Mixed notational system MS, DIVISION, SECTIONS Coordinate and subordinate relationship among the classes Provides lots of hospitality in its array and chain. Possess the qualities such as brevity and expressiveness.
  86. 86. CCCC Indo-arabic numerals Roman Smalls Roman Capitals Greek letters Comma, Semi-colon, colon, dot, inverted comma, hyphen etc. Circular brackets and Arrows.
  87. 87. The notation of CC is much flexible than DDC. It provides a lot of hospitality in array and chain. Besides this it possesses other qualities of a good notation such as simplicity, expressiveness and synthesis.
  88. 88. NORMATIVE PRINCIPLESNORMATIVE PRINCIPLES The NRP i.e. laws, canons, principles can be used in a particular context. SRR proposed these in different levels.
  89. 89. LevelsLevels Levels Name of NP a Basic Process of Thinking Basic Laws b Library Science Fundamental Laws c Classification Canons d Helpful sequence in Array Principles e Work of classifying Postulate and Principle for facet sequence
  90. 90. Basic LawsBasic Laws Law of Interpretation Law of Impartiality Law of Symmetry Law of Parsimony Law of Local Variation Law of Osmosis
  91. 91. LAW OF INTERPRETATIONLAW OF INTERPRETATION SRR- 1008 principles: Nyaya Kosa Legal texts Canons , principles and Rules: Legal work In case of conflicts between canons, principles and rules: it should be resolved.
  92. 92. LAW OF IMPARIALITYLAW OF IMPARIALITY Between two or more claimants (first position among 2 facets) preference should be made only on sufficient grounds and not arbitrarily. Eg. 1. Sequence of facets: Wall Picture Principle 2. CC ed 1, “9”-empty digit but law suggested other species of digits i.e. Roman smalls & caps should be used as empty digit
  93. 93. LAW OF IMPARIALITYLAW OF IMPARIALITY 3. Connecting digit in CC from 1952-1963: same connecting digit was used for [S] & [T] i.e. ‘
  94. 94. LAW OF SYMMETRYLAW OF SYMMETRY Of two entities or situations which admits of being regarded as symmetrical counterparts of each other, if one of them is given weight in some context, the other too should be given a corresponding weight
  95. 95. LAW OF SYMMETRYLAW OF SYMMETRY a. Species of digits in CC: SRR allocated greater ordinal value to Roman Caps than Indo Arabic Numbers. Later Roman Smalls were used as PCI and were given lesser ordinal value than Indo Arabic numerals satisfying the law of symmetry.
  96. 96. LAW OF PARSIMONYLAW OF PARSIMONY Between to or more possible alternatives bearing on a particular phenomena, the one leading to overall economy of manpower, material, money and time is to be preferred. Eg. CC employs various devices- CD;GD;SD Legnth of Class Number
  97. 97. Law of Local VariationLaw of Local Variation This law directs towards the formation of special collection separate from general collection. Word “Local” should be interpreted as to refer to a geographical area of any size such as American; European interests etc.
  98. 98. Law of Local VariationLaw of Local Variation Eg. [S] isolate: digit 2 & 3 2: Monther country 3: Favoured country Favoured Language [-] dash
  99. 99. LAW OF OSMOSISLAW OF OSMOSIS Owing to the canon of context, if a change in the catalogue code or classification scheme becomes essential, then from a particular date following works should be carried out: 1.Classify and catalogue all newly accessioned documents according to new classification scheme and cataloguge code
  100. 100. LAW OF OSMOSISLAW OF OSMOSIS 2. Re-classify and re-catalogue the documents which are much in use. 3. Maintain two catalogues i.e. old and new catalogue and its sequence on the shelf 4. Reference librarian should direct the attention of the users to both the catalouges.

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