Agenda of the session
•About the topic
1. Computer Systems
2. Connection of Components
3. CPU Architecture
4. Registers in CPU
6. Processing Devices
Computer Architecture = Machine Organization (How the machine looks
like) + Instruction Set Architecture (How you talk to the machine)
About the Topic
a set of rules and methods - that describe the functionality, organization,
and implementation of computer systems
CO1:(Understand) Choose appropriate instruction set architecture and
addressing modes used in a processor.
CO2:(Understand) Apply the knowledge of arithmetic operations to
CO3:(Understand) Understand Design and analyze pipelined control
CO4 (Understand) Understand parallel processing architectures.
CO5 (Understand) Understand performance of memory systems.
Functional Units - Basic Operational Concepts - Bus Structures - Performance
of Computer – Memory Locations and Addresses - Instruction and
Instruction Sequencing - Addressing Modes.
UNIT I :
BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS
Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers - Design of Fast Adders -
Multiplication of Positive numbers, Signed Operand Multiplication, Booth's
Algorithm - Fast Multiplication - Integer Division -Floating Point Numbers
UNIT II :
Basic MIPS implementation – Building datapath – Control Implementation
scheme – Pipelining –Pipelined datapath and control – Handling Data
hazards & Control hazards – Exceptions.
UNIT III :
PROCESSOR AND CONTROL UNIT
Basic Concepts - Speed, Size and Cost - Cache Memories - Performance
Considerations – Virtual Memories- memory management requirements.
Accessing I/O devices- Interrupts – Enabling and disabling interrupts-
Handling multiple devices - Direct Memory Access.
UNIT IV :
MEMORY SYSTEMS AND I/O
1 V.Carl Hamacher, Zvonko G. Varanesic and Safat G. Zaky, “Computer
Embedded Systems“,Mc Graw-Hill Inc, sixth edition, 2019.
2 David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessey, “Computer organization and
design‟, Morgan Kauffman
/ Elsevier, Fifth edition, 2016.
1 William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for
Education, Eighth Edition, 2013.
2 John P. Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organization”, Tata McGraw
Hill, Third Edition, 2014.
• Determined by two factors
1. Number of bits in the MAR
• 2K where K = width of the register in bits
2. Size of the address portion of the instruction
• 4 bits allows 16 locations
• 8 bits allows 256 locations
• 32 bits allows 4,294,967,296 or 4 GB
• Important for performance
– Insufficient memory can cause a processor to w ork
at 50% below performance
It acts as a buffer between the CPU and the main memory.
• Hold data and program -
frequently required to execute
• less access time as compared to
• faster than main memory.
• made of high speed RAM
• limited capacity to store data.
• Works on the
“Principle of Locality
• Communicates indirectly with CPU via main memory. So, It is slower
than the main memory.
• Non- volatile in nature. So, store data permanently.
1. Magnetic Storage Devices: it is sequential access memory.
2. Hard Disk
3. Floppy Disk
4. Magnetic Tape
• Processing devices are parts of the computer that are responsible for
processing or converting data into meaningful information.
3. System Clock
A. The CPU is traditionally referred to as a Processor.
B. The CPU is a computer chip located on the motherboard.
C. Performs processing and control activities performed by different parts of
D. Main electronic circuitry in the computer.
E. Carries out the instructions contained in a computer program by
performing arithmetic, logical, control and input/output operations.
F. Most modern CPUs are contained on a single Integrated Circuit (IC) chip
and as such are called microprocessors.
G. A processor can have two or more CPUs or independent processing units
called “cores” on a single chip and such processor is called a multi-core
• Electrical pathway that transfer data and
instructions among different parts of computer.
• Main memory is directly/indirectly connected to
the processor via a bus.
1. Data Bus
2. Address Bus
3. Control Bus