The institutional communication of the public administration, approaches for an anti corruption communication campaign
1. Advanced training on Prevention corruption Techniques and Methodologies: The Institutional communication of the Public Administration; different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Vienna, 11 November 2011 Claudia Salvi FormezPA
2. What is communication? Webster's Dictionary defines the communication as the activity of "sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas," Communication is a typical behavior of the human being
5. Information Who? Font What? Message Through which channel? Medium To Whom? Receiver To which aim? Expected result
8. The importance of communication Communication is easily overlooked , but the ability to communicate effectively is necessary to carry out the thoughts and visions of an organization to the people . The importance of speech and words whether through a paper or a voice is a communication medium to convey directions and provide synchronization. Without communication, there is no way to express thoughts, ideas and feelings.
11. Different forms of communication the verbal and nonverbal interaction between two interdependent people (sometimes more). Interpersonal communication Internal communication External communication is the function responsible for effective communication among participants within an organization the exchange of information and messages between an organization and other organizations, groups, or individuals outside its formal structure
12. Interpersonal Communication Four principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are basic to communication. Inescapability Irreversibility Complexity Contextuality
20. In One-way communication the sender transmits information in the form of direction, without any expectation of discussion or feedback. ( For example, a manager informs an employee that a certain project is due the following day ). Interpersonal Communication Style One-way communication is faster and easier for the sender – (because he or she does not have to deal with potential questions or disagreement from the receiver). It tends to be overused in business
21. In Two-way communication involves the sharing of information between two or more parties in a constructive exchange. ( For example, a manager holds a staff meeting in order to establish the due dates for a number of projects ). Two-way communication indicates that the sender is receptive to feedback and willing to provide a response . Interpersonal Communication Style Although it is more difficult and time-consuming for the sender than one-way communication, it also ensures a more accurate understanding of the message.
27. The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration The objective of the communication of the public administration is to serve public interest , no matter which is the Organisation that disseminate the information It thus includes communication actions aimed at civil society and which are always subjected to assessment by civil society
28. The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration The Key element of this kind of communication is the relationship between the public administration and the citizen. Public administration should serve the citizens
29. The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration: A Public Administration at the service of the citizens must ensure a clear communication written with a simple language which can be understood by everybody.
31. The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration should favour the following processes: Promote change Govern the territory Reorganize services Redistribute resources Highlight the work of individuals and apparatuses Review the procedures Streamline the administrative processes Simplify the language Perceiving the services and not only institutions Listen to the people Recovering ethics and values Give identity to the public and employees
61. Advanced training on Prevention corruption The drawing up of a communication campaign Vienna 11 November 2011 Claudia Salvi FormezPA
64. The different types of communication plan The communication plan can be of 3 types for the communication of all actions and/or interventions provided by the institution as a whole Plan of the whole institution for the communication of all actions and/or interventions programmed by one sector/area of the organization Sector or Policy Plan aimed at programming interventions and/or internal communication projects Internal Communication Plan There can be no effective external communication if there is not an effective internal communication
65. A Communication Plan definition The communication plan is a tool that serves to schedule actions of communication in an organization in a certain period of time W hy we communicate Finalization Who is communicating and to which beneficiaries Key actors identification What we are going to implement Products identification With which tools and resources The communication plan allows you to define:
66. Methodological stages of a communication plan The methodological stages of a Communication Plan can be divided in 4 phases: 1) Strategic Planning 2) Operational planning 3) Implementation 4) Evaluation
67. 1) The strategic planning (planning and drawing up) foresees: The identification of the strategic and communication objectives so as laid down by the Administration The start of a reflection on the internal and external context on which to operate the institution's policies, on the actors involved and the possible recipients of the actions of communication
68. 2) The Operational Planning It is a phase that consists in the actual translation of the strategic objectives identified, in communication tools for the implementation of the Plan
69. 3) Implementation It is the phase aimed at the realization and management of the plan in accordance with the procedures and schedule established during the design phase
71. Definition of the activities The communications plan defines in detail Each of which is potentially subject to a different approach to maximize the "reply" in terms of notoriety and purchase The various categories of recipients To use for each of them, which will leverage on the topics that are more sensitive The messages Which you can use to get more easily the message to each identified target The communication tools
72. Definition of the activities how we wish to distribute them throughout the year in line with the trend of demand for the type of services that are performed, events to be highlighted, special initiatives that we already know that we must promote The programming of the communication activities And thus the costs to be incurred for the implementation of planned activities The budget Capable of measuring the effectiveness of interventions The indicators
74. Strategic Planning Context analysis The geographic, territorial, socio-economic context The general framework of reference The characteristics of the market in which a particular service is provided The sector context The characteristics of the Administration The organizational context The analysis of the context can be different according to the specific situations: You can take into consideration: The analysis of the context is functional to the contextualization of the strategic objectives for an effective translation into communication goals
75. Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis Strength It is useful at this stage to carry out a SWOT analysis SWOT is the acronym of 4 English terms : SWOT analysis serves to identify potential areas on which to focus the communication Plan Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
76. Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses External opportunities outside the institution/organization External threats to the institution/organization Within the organization (for example an innovative service) Within the organization (for example lack of professional skills, damaged reputation) For example, a particular channel of communication may prove to be effective in a particular region , high-level of education in the identified reference group For example, lack of trust of the public in the local media , lack of regular use of internet by citizens
77. Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis provides information useful to combine the resources and skills existing in the institution with the attitudes of the environment in which works An organizational analysis can also be introduced at this stage since it provides useful indications on the institution and on the various roles of the different actors involved
81. Strategic Planning Objectives The definition of objectives can be obtained from the awareness of the strategic objectives of the Organization and from the data and information that the analysis of the context of reference, provided. Operational objectives are declinations of the strategic goal
86. Strategic Planning SMART Objectives S pecific Objectives should always be SMART M easurable A chievable R ealistic T ime-bound To be monitored and evaluated Through a correct definition of objectives , communication must indicate clearly what a P.A. wants to achieve with the communication activities
87. Strategic Planning Useful tips Advertise your website to target groups that use internet through on-line and off-line communication Once again this is not a goal but a method The Agency will use innovative media Communicate our project to the community through a good coverage of the opinion press This is not an objective but rather a strategy and a tactic A key objective is the creation of a strong relationship with the media by organizing a press office Clear and measurable objectives Comments Wrong objectives
89. Strategic Planning Target segmentation There are different ways to perform Public target segmentation. The choice is influenced by the type of Communication strategy we choose both at strategic and operational level. The most traditional segmentation ways to be also used in an integrated manner are the following: Geographic segmentation socio-demographic segmentation psycho-graphic segmentation segmentation based upon service use Segmentation based upon required benefits
90. Strategic Planning Target segmentation Geographic segmentation Target Groups are divided according to area of geographic origin (countries, regions, headquarters, areas), population numbers, city centre dimension, climate environment); Socio-demographic segmentation the Target Group is divided on the basis of demographic variables , such as age, sex, family size, income level, occupation, educational level, religion, etc.; Psycho-graphic segmentation Target Groups are divided according to their lifestyles , user status and main characteristics
91. Strategic Planning Target segmentation Segmentation based upon service use Target Groups are divided on the basis of their frequency in the use of a specific service offered, and level of trust in the Administration providing that specific service, awareness of the value of the service used and behaviour to that specific service Segmentation based upon required benefits Target Groups are divided by advantages for users in the use of a specific service Geographic and socio-demographic segmentations are usually the most used as they are easier and simpler to be adopted
92. Strategic Planning Target Macro-segmentation Another possible way of identifying the stakeholders is the macro-segmentation. The macro-segmentation divides audiences into four categories: Beneficiaries In an anti corruption campaign could be: general population, businesses, civil society and the Government . Institutions Government, Parliament, government agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities Media Newspapers, periodicals, specialised and local press, national and local TV, national and local radio, internet Influential entities or individuals who have an influence on political and social issues (trade unions, professional orders, training institutes)
96. Operational Planning The Strategy The choice of strategy consists in translating the object in communication activities and tools Strategies help frame future decisions . Once objectives have been identified, the strategy simply helps you picture how you will reach such aims
97. Operational Planning The Strategy The Public A Communication strategy can be identified in relation to : Relationship between those who issue the message and those who receive it (issueing and receiving) Contact mode Communication style and tone
98. Operational Planning The choice of strategy in relation to public As the Public can be widely diversified , we have to choose among Non-differentiated strategy Differentiated strategy Concentrated strategy
99. Operational Planning The choice of strategy in relation to public Non-differentiated strategy Differentiated strategy Concentrated strategy we use a single message for all the identified Target Groups without any difference . It is less expensive but also the least effective in terms of message impact on Target Groups, as it is less flexible and too general foresees a different kind of message depending on the Target Group we want to reach. It is more expensive but also more effective from a Communication point of view. It is an evolution compared to the differentiated strategy . Once the Target Groups we want to reach have been identified, we select the ones on which to concentrate our message . The concentrated strategy offers a well-targeted message but it penalises the other identified Target Groups .
100. Operational Planning Relationship between issueing and receiving Propaganda Persuasion Facilitation In such option, the message is adapted to the feed-back we wish to receive on the Final Beneficiaries of the message. In this respect, the following choices can be made:
101. Operational Planning Relationship between issueing and receiving Propaganda Persuasion Facilitation provides the message unidirectionality . The Administration enforcing such strategy enables no feed-back from citizens is based on the idea citizens must take a position versus the policy adopted by a given Administration. Message receivers have to choose between good and bad, right or wrong. Persuasion tries to direct towards a single point of view and thus allows little differentiation. assumes the presence of different Beneficiaries of public Communication choices . They all have their own lifestyles and may follow (or not) the policy undertaken by the Administration. Facilitation tries to train citizens leaving them free to choose and providing them with clear messages aiming to protect their own individuality as well as Final Beneficiaries’ choice. A Communication Plan drawn up by a Public Administration has to follow the facilitation option although sometimes persuasion options may be adopted.
102. Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to the contact mode Direct interaction or through the adoption of a filter − namely, another tool or another target in this case the target audience can be reached in two different ways: Actions On a large or small case
103. Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone Educational style Informative style Entertainment style In the strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone: we can choose among A mix of the previous categories
104. Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone Educational Style Informative style the communicator plays an educational role and is therefore able to train the end-user on the message content the communicator is neutral in disseminating the message and just provides useful information , data and news Entertainment style A mix of the previous categories the communicator provides the information while trying to amuse the end-user; derives from a mix of the above mentioned styles . It uses some combinations of the above categories’ entertainment/informative styles or educational/informative/entertainment styles
105. Operational Planning The choice strategy: useful tips Economic resources available The choice of the strategy must be done bearing in mind a number of constraints and feasibility criteria that your organization should consider, for example in reference to: Human resources available within the administration The public identified in the plan Technological resources which you have
106. Operational Planning Content Once objectives, strategy and target has been identified it is important to make a choice on the communication content , i .e. what are the values and/or information that we want to convey in the construction of the messages in a consistent manner The contents must be clear, explicit and accurate with respect to the potential of the organization.
107. Operational Planning Messages After the content definition it is time to devise the message. Messages help you communicate the right things to the right people. As messages permeate all the Communication activities, they attract wide attention from decision makers. It is therefore important to spend time on this section The message must be visible, clear and easily identifiable Its validity depends on the possibility to be adapted to the different Communication forms and tools Originality helps capture the audience – humour as well as metaphors help increase noticeability
113. Operational Planning How to choose tools for each target group Compile a national, annual anti-corruption report that outlines the activities of your agency and distribute them to the media Develop internet-based interactive games to allow participnats to test their knowledge of what is corruption Organise awards for journalists, training on reporting on corruption, Communicate directly with the public through the web site, new media such as blogs Anticipate media enquiries about on-going corruption cases preparing on the web site a restricted area devoted to them Coordinate public forums and publish pamphlets, brochures, and newsletters for public distribution to show the different forms of corruption Meetings, workshops, seminars Regularly brief journalists and editors. Hold public events focusing on corruption as a means to build coalitions Organise exhibition in schools, colleges, and universities to highlight examples of corruption and its consequences Form an advisory group and exchange inmformation with stakeholders Tools with the media and civil society Tools for the public Tools for stakeholders
118. Implementation Result provision Activities implementation, achievement of the objectives, and contribute effectively to achieving the general objective of the project Efficient management The objective of the implementation phase is: Monitoring and drawing up of report Of the available resources Preparing a progress report
119. Implementation The phase of implementation can be managed effectively through the drafting of an annual action plan The action plan is a monthly description of activities and the sequence to be followed The action plan allows to implement the core activities and develop a level of detail for the practical management of the communication plan and to monitor its status of implementation
123. Evaluation The evaluation process consists in the verification of the correspondence between planning and implementation of what was originally foreseen in the Plan. Evaluation is usually carried out by an external expert Checks whether the chosen strategies and objectives are appropriate Check the progress, acts in the event of distortions, updates your plan Why? Periodical Continuous When? Involves an external expert to guarantee its ojectivity Internal management Who? Evalutation Monitoring
124. Exercise: Draw up your Communication Plan Analyse situation What’s the problem? What are the causes? Who are the stakeholders? What can be done? Identify objectives What are the desired outcomes? What is the planned time frame? What is the desired level of effect? Identify Stakeholders Who are the key stakeholders? How can we build coalitions? Who is the key audience? Select communication channels Through which channels can the majority of target audience be reached? Design messages Depending on the audience and communication channels how can your message be articulated clearly and simply? Implement strategy What planned activities will you employ (press releases, press conferences, replies to media requests, websites, text messaging services, etc.) Monitor and evaluate What method of evaluation will you use to measure the impact of your communication strategy?