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Learning and teaching in the digital age (By Steve Wheeler)

The world is in a constant state of change. The changes are profoundly affecting every
part of the fabric of our society.

Education is particularly is affected by change, with a
direct impact on the cultures of our schools and universities, and also by projection –
with implications for all our futures.

It is likely that the students we now teach will leave school to enter a world of work
that is radically different to the world with which we are currently familiar.

The evolution of digital media has brought us to an unprecedented point in history
where we are able to connect, create and collaborate in new ways on a global basis.

Knowledge production is burgeoning, to the extent that any fact or statistic is now
openly searchable and available on the Web. Such cultural shifts necessitate new
modes of thinking, new ways of communication and new rules of engagement with
people, content and organisations.

Mobile technologies, handheld devices and social media have combined to create
fertile, anytime-anyplace learning opportunities that are unprecedented. Teachers and
learners are adapting to these new untethered and ubiquitous modes of education,
and in so doing, are discovering an entirely new array of skills which we shall call the
‘digital literacies’. These include the ability to learn across and between multiple and
diverse platforms, the ability to self broadcast to large audiences and the discernment
to select and filter out good and bad content, all achievable within ever changing mediated environments.
What will be the new skills and literacies that teachers and students will need, to
survive and thrive in the digital age? How will assessment of learning change? What
will be the expectations of young learners, and will these differ from what the
institutions can offer? Ultimately, how will teachers prepare students for a world of
work we can no longer clearly describe?
n this presentation he will explore these concepts and discuss the future of learning
and teaching in the digital age.

Learning and teaching in the digital age (By Steve Wheeler)

  1. 1. Learning and teaching in the digital age<br />Steve Wheeler<br />@timbuckteeth<br />Plymouth University, UK<br />8th International Teacher Training Seminar, Barcelona, Spain: October 6th, 2011 <br />
  2. 2. Here's to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently.They're not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo.You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. But the only thing you can't do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward.And while some see them as the crazy ones, we see genius.Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  3. 3. Our SharedProblem...<br />“For the first time we are preparing students for a future we cannot clearly describe.”<br />–David Warlick<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  4. 4. Introducing technology into education<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  5. 5. New and emerging technologies...<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br />...are often met with opposition.<br /><br />
  6. 6. I P D<br />Innovation<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Prevention<br />Department<br />
  7. 7. Introducing computers into schools<br />“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic”<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  8. 8. We are battling against a common enemy....<br />ignorance<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  9. 9. If you think education is expensive... <br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />...try ignorance. <br /><br />
  10. 10. What is wrong with school?<br />
  11. 11. “Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school.” – Albert Einstein<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  12. 12. Does education need transformation?<br />"In large states public education will always be mediocre, for the same reason that in large kitchens the cooking is usually bad." <br />-Nietzsche<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Source: Chambers English Dictionary<br />
  13. 13. Young people’s out-of-school experiences with technology can mean that students find the presentation of school curriculum less challenging, less relevant and less engaging. <br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Source:<br />
  14. 14. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Education is changing for young people as they experience self-directed learning, (mostly outside school) about things that interest them.<br />Source:<br />
  15. 15. “Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.” <br />- Paulo Friere<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  16. 16. Does education need reform?<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br />“The wish to preserve the past rather than the hope of creating the future dominates the minds of those who control the teaching of the young" - Bertrand Russell<br /><br />
  17. 17. The School Computer Suite...<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br /><br />
  18. 18. Objections from educators<br />Mobile phones are banned in most schools because...<br />...they are distracting and disruptive. The phone becomes the focus of attention,<br />inappropriate images/videos can be taken and sent, leading to invasion of privacy and loss of teacher control!<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br /><br />
  19. 19. Mobile phones are the natural communication tool of choice for younger users. <br />Are we preparing this generation for the future or for the past?<br />Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a month, and one in three send more than 100 texts a day, or more than 3,000 texts a month. (2009 statistics)<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br />Source:<br /><br />
  20. 20. What are the needs of today’s learners?<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  21. 21. The Net Generation?<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Digital Natives?<br />Homo <br />Zappiens?<br /><br />
  22. 22. Learners will need new ‘literacies’<br />Social networking<br />Privacy maintenance<br />Identity management<br />Creating content<br />Organising content<br />Reusing and repurposing<br />Filtering and selecting<br />Self presenting<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  23. 23. anytime<br />personalised<br />anyplace<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  24. 24. Trends in Education<br />Just for me<br />Apprenticeship model<br />Just in case<br />Standard Curriculum<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Just in time<br />Bespoke Curriculum<br />Just for me<br />Personalised Learning<br />Personal Learning Environment<br />
  25. 25. Personal Learning Environment<br />Asystem that helps learners take control of and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to<br />cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010<br />set their own learning goals <br />manage their learning<br />communicate with others<br />User Generated Content<br />
  26. 26. What does a personal learning environment look like?<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  27. 27. Personalised Learning<br />Today you are You, <br />that is truer than true. <br />There is no one alive who is Youer than You. <br />- Dr Suess<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  28. 28. Personalisation of learning means ensuring that individual differences are acknowledged<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  29. 29. Personal Web Tools<br />Generating Content<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Sharing Content<br />Organising Content<br />
  30. 30. Personal Web Tools<br />Generating Content<br />Blog<br />Mashup<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />E-portfolio<br />Wiki<br />Tagging<br />Sharing Content<br />Organising Content<br />
  31. 31. Personal Learning Environments<br />PLEs are not only personal web tools and personal learning networks. PLEs are much wider than this, taking in experiences and realia, as well as learning through TV, music, paper based materials, radio & more formal contexts.<br />Personal <br />Learning <br />Network<br />Personal<br />Learning <br />Environment<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Learning content is not as important now as where (or who) to connect to, to find it.<br />Personal<br />Web Tools<br />PWTs are any web tools, (usually Web 2.0) chosen by learners to support their lifelong learning.<br />Source:<br />
  32. 32. Learning to learn<br />Critical thinking<br />Collaboration<br />Creativity<br />Reflection<br />Evaluation<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  33. 33. Why social media?<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  34. 34. Social media use 2011 <br />>750 Million<br />>200Million<br />95 million tweets/day<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />>125 Million<br />>100 Million<br />>17 million <br />articles <br />(in English)<br />>5 Billion images<br />3000 images/minute<br />2 Billion views/day<br />24 hours/minute <br />Source:<br />
  35. 35. The global context...<br />There are 5 billion mobile phone connections. 3 times as many mobile phones as computers on the planet.<br />Social media use is on the rise with over 750 million users on Facebook and 24 hours of video uploaded every minute on Youtube.<br />Data consumed in 2010 for mobiles 2.8 exabytes<br />Data consumed in 2009 1.1 exabytes<br />Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011<br />Source: BBC News 2010<br />
  36. 36. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />With access to Social Media everyone has a voice<br /><br />
  37. 37. What are the new pedagogies?<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  38. 38. Education<br />Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within<br /> = to bring out potential<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  39. 39. Education<br />Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within<br /> = to bring out potential<br />Socratic discourse is <br />based on asking and answering questions <br />to stimulate critical <br />thinking and illuminate ideas.<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Image source:<br />
  40. 40. Self Organised Learning<br /> We cannot ‘manage’ self-organised learning for our students. <br /> We can only create conducive environments within which students will organise their own learning.<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  41. 41. Formal and Informal learning<br />Formal Learning<br />Informal Learning<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />20%<br />80%<br />Source: Cofer, D. (2000). Informal Workplace Learning.<br />
  42. 42. Networked learning<br />“Understanding how networks work is one of the most important literacies of the 21st Century.”<br />- Howard Rheingold <br />cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010<br /><br />
  43. 43. Making Connections<br />In connectivism, learning involves creating connections and developing a network. It is a theory for the digital age drawing upon chaos, emergent properties, and <br />self organised learning.<br />(It’s not what you know but who you know)<br />cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010<br />Source: Wikipedia<br /><br />
  44. 44. Social Networks...<br />Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships<br />Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration<br /><br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)<br />
  45. 45. Social Networks...<br />Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships<br />Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration<br />Networks form around shared interests, ideas and objects<br /><br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)<br />
  46. 46. Rhizomes<br />Deleuze & Guattari<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />‘Anarchy’ of the Web<br />
  47. 47. Rhizomatic learning<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />“...multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation.”<br />
  48. 48. Rhizomatic learning<br />“In the rhizomatic view, knowledge can only be negotiated, [and is] a personal knowledge-creation process with mutable goals and constantly negotiated premises.”<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />© Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2008<br />Community as curriculum: The users become the arbiters of what constitutes knowledge<br />Source: Cormier, D. (2008)<br />
  49. 49. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />Paragogy<br />
  50. 50. The kinds of learner support<br />These are often provided by peers<br />Social <br />support<br />Technical<br />support<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Academic<br />support<br />Traditionally the domain of the teacher/tutor<br />Reference: (Carnwell, 2000)<br />
  51. 51. Image source:<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />“We are seeing peer-based learning networks where students are learning as much from each other as they are from their mentors and tutors.” <br />– John Seely-Brown<br />
  52. 52. What will be the new <br />teacher roles?<br />
  53. 53. “Any teacher who can be replaced by a computer....<br /> .... should be”.<br />- Arthur C. Clarke<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  54. 54. “A computer once beat me at chess... <br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />...but was no match for me at kickboxing.”<br /><br />
  55. 55. Content curation<br />Collaboration<br />Co-learning<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Facilitation<br />Learning support<br />Inspiration!<br /><br />
  56. 56. Doctors save lives. Teachers make lives.<br /><br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  57. 57. Digital Content Curation <br /><br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  58. 58. “We need to trust the innate ability of learners to self assess.”<br />- Derek Robertson<br />E-Assessment Scotland, 2010<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />
  59. 59. Ipsative assessment...<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />...where a student’s learning is measured against previous attainment. This is observed in games where players are constantly trying to better their own previous top scores.<br />
  60. 60. Triadic assessment<br />Self Assessment<br />Peer Assessment<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />Tutor Assessment<br />Triadic Assessment (Gale et al, 2002)<br />
  61. 61. Multimedia brought the world into the classroom...<br />Smart technologies will take the classroom out into the world.<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br />
  62. 62. The future?<br />“All too often today we are giving young people cut flowers when we should be teaching them to grow their own plants.”<br />-John W Gardner<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br /><br /><br />
  63. 63. Thank you!<br />Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011<br />W:<br />E:<br />B:<br />T: @timbuckteeth<br />Picture by Helen Keegan<br />
  64. 64. Steve Wheeler<br />University of Plymouth, United Kingdom<br />This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: International Licence.<br />