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Learning and teaching in the digital age Steve Wheeler @timbuckteeth Plymouth University, UK 8th International Teacher Training Seminar, Barcelona, Spain: October 6th, 2011
Here's to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently.They're not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo.You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. But the only thing you can't do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward.And while some see them as the crazy ones, we see genius.Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Our SharedProblem... “For the first time we are preparing students for a future we cannot clearly describe.” –David Warlick Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://communications.nottingham.ac.uk/podcasts/
   Introducing technology into education Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
New and emerging technologies... Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 ...are often met with opposition. http://www.weirdthings.org.uk
I P D Innovation Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Prevention Department
  Introducing computers into schools “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic” Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
We are battling against a common enemy.... ignorance Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
If you think education is expensive...  Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...try ignorance.  http://www.dailymail.co.uk
What is wrong with school?
“Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school.” – Albert Einstein Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://gradeproud.com
Does education need transformation? "In large states public education will always be mediocre, for the same reason that in large kitchens the cooking is usually bad."  -Nietzsche Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://thescholasticdiary.wordpress.com Source: Chambers English Dictionary
Young people’s out-of-school experiences with technology can mean that students find the presentation of school curriculum less challenging, less relevant and less engaging.  Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://encefalus.com/ Source: http://community.learningobjects.com
Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://flickr.com/photos/thomcochrane/416206133/ Education is changing for young people as they experience self-directed learning, (mostly outside school) about things that interest them. Source: http://community.learningobjects.com
“Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.”  - Paulo Friere Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://arts.anu.edu.au
Does education need reform? Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 “The wish to preserve the past rather than the hope of creating the future dominates the minds of those who control the teaching of the young"  - Bertrand Russell http://flickr.com/photos/shu1/6065783/
The School Computer Suite... Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 http://www.hseb.utah.edu
Objections from educators Mobile phones are banned in most schools because... ...they are distracting and disruptive. The phone becomes the focus of attention, inappropriate images/videos can be taken and sent, leading to invasion of privacy and loss of teacher control! Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 http://i.dailymail.co.uk
Mobile phones are the natural communication tool of choice for younger  users.  Are we preparing this generation for the future or for the past? Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a month, and one in three send more than 100 texts a day, or more than 3,000 texts a month. (2009 statistics) Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 Source: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx http://blog.roadandtravel.com
What are the needs of today’s learners? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
The Net Generation? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Digital Natives? Homo  Zappiens? http://www.flickr.com/photos/56155476@N08/5667863948/
Learners will need new ‘literacies’ Social networking Privacy maintenance Identity management Creating content Organising content Reusing and repurposing Filtering and selecting Self presenting Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.mopocket.com/
anytime personalised anyplace Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://ithalas.com
Trends in Education Just for me Apprenticeship model Just in case Standard Curriculum Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Just in time Bespoke Curriculum Just for me Personalised Learning Personal Learning Environment
Personal Learning Environment Asystem that helps learners take control of and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to cc  Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 set their own learning goals  manage their learning communicate with others User Generated Content
What does a personal learning environment look like? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Personalised Learning Today you are You,  that is truer than true.  There is no one alive who is Youer than You.  - Dr Suess Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://images.fanpop.com/images
Personalisation of learning means ensuring that individual differences are acknowledged Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Personal Web Tools Generating Content Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Sharing Content Organising Content
Personal Web Tools Generating Content Blog Mashup Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 E-portfolio Wiki Tagging Sharing Content Organising Content
Personal Learning Environments PLEs are not only personal web tools and personal learning networks. PLEs are much wider than this, taking in experiences and realia, as well as learning through TV, music, paper based materials, radio & more formal contexts. Personal  Learning  Network Personal Learning  Environment Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Learning content is not as important now as where (or who) to connect to, to find it. Personal Web Tools PWTs are any web tools, (usually Web 2.0) chosen by learners to support their lifelong learning. Source: http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/2010/07/anatomy-of-ple.html
Learning to learn Critical thinking Collaboration Creativity Reflection Evaluation Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://socialenterpriseambassadors.org.uk
Why social media? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Social media use 2011  >750 Million >200Million 95 million tweets/day Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 >125 Million >100 Million >17 million  articles  (in English) >5 Billion images 3000 images/minute 2 Billion views/day 24 hours/minute  Source: http://www.browsermedia.co.uk
The global context... There are 5 billion mobile phone connections. 3 times as many mobile phones as computers on the planet. Social media use is on the rise with over 750 million users on Facebook and 24 hours of video uploaded every minute on Youtube. Data consumed in 2010 for mobiles 2.8 exabytes Data consumed in 2009 1.1 exabytes Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 Source: BBC News 2010
Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 With access to Social Media everyone has a voice http://www.uksmallbusinesswebsites.co.uk
What are the new pedagogies? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Education Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within 	    = to bring out potential Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Education Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within 	    = to bring out potential Socratic discourse is  based on asking and answering questions  to stimulate critical  thinking and illuminate ideas. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Image source: http://laescueladeateanas.files.wordpress.com
Self Organised Learning     We cannot ‘manage’ self-organised learning for our students.      We can only create conducive environments within which students will organise their own learning. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Formal and Informal learning Formal Learning Informal Learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 20% 80% Source: Cofer, D. (2000). Informal Workplace Learning.
Networked learning “Understanding how networks work is one of the most important literacies of the 21st Century.” - Howard Rheingold  cc  Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 http://www.ischool.berkeley.edu
Making Connections In connectivism, learning involves creating connections and developing a network. It is a theory for the digital age drawing upon chaos, emergent properties, and  self organised learning. (It’s not what you know but who you know) cc  Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 Source: Wikipedia http://www.pestproducts.com
Social Networks... Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration http://www.guardian.co.uk Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://strategicdc.com Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)
Social Networks... Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration Networks form around shared interests, ideas and objects http://www.guardian.co.uk Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://strategicdc.com Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)
Rhizomes Deleuze & Guattari Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ‘Anarchy’ of the Web
Rhizomatic learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://archbold-station.org “...multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation.”
Rhizomatic learning “In the rhizomatic view, knowledge can only be negotiated, [and is] a personal knowledge-creation process with mutable goals and constantly negotiated premises.” Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 © Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2008 Community as curriculum: The users become the arbiters of what constitutes knowledge Source: Cormier, D. (2008) http://davecormier.com/edblog/
Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.flickr.com/photos/luc/ Paragogy
The kinds of learner support These are often provided by peers Social  support Technical support Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Academic support Traditionally the domain of the teacher/tutor Reference: (Carnwell, 2000)
Image source: http://businessinnovationfactory.com Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 “We are seeing peer-based learning networks where students are learning as much from each other as they are from their mentors and tutors.”  – John Seely-Brown
What will be the new  teacher roles?
    “Any teacher who can be replaced by a computer....      .... should be”. - Arthur C. Clarke Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
“A computer once beat me at chess...  Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...but was no match for me at kickboxing.” http://woodforthetrees.files.wordpress.com
Content curation Collaboration Co-learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Facilitation Learning support Inspiration! http://www.flickr.com/photos/worldbank/2760560588/
Doctors save lives. Teachers make lives. http://www.taranakicareers.co.nz Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Digital Content Curation  www.scoop.it/t/future-school Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
“We need to trust the innate ability of learners to self assess.” - Derek Robertson E-Assessment Scotland, 2010 Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
Ipsative assessment... Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...where a student’s learning is measured against previous attainment. This is observed in games where players are constantly trying to better their own previous top scores.
Triadic assessment Self Assessment Peer Assessment Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Tutor Assessment Triadic Assessment (Gale et al, 2002)
Multimedia brought the world into the classroom... Smart technologies will take the classroom out into the world. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 www.canada.com
The future? “All too often today we are giving young people cut flowers when we should be teaching them to grow their own plants.” -John W Gardner Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.newcastle.edu.au http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/image/s_flowers-lost-gardens-of-heligan.jpg
Thank you! Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 W: steve-wheeler.net E: swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk B: steve-wheeler.blogspot.com T: @timbuckteeth Picture by Helen Keegan
Steve Wheeler swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk University of Plymouth, United Kingdom This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: International Licence.

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Learning and teaching in the digital age (By Steve Wheeler)

  • 1. Learning and teaching in the digital age Steve Wheeler @timbuckteeth Plymouth University, UK 8th International Teacher Training Seminar, Barcelona, Spain: October 6th, 2011
  • 2. Here's to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently.They're not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo.You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. But the only thing you can't do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward.And while some see them as the crazy ones, we see genius.Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 3. Our SharedProblem... “For the first time we are preparing students for a future we cannot clearly describe.” –David Warlick Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://communications.nottingham.ac.uk/podcasts/
  • 4. Introducing technology into education Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
  • 5. New and emerging technologies... Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 ...are often met with opposition. http://www.weirdthings.org.uk
  • 6. I P D Innovation Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Prevention Department
  • 7. Introducing computers into schools “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic” Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
  • 8. We are battling against a common enemy.... ignorance Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 9. If you think education is expensive... Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...try ignorance. http://www.dailymail.co.uk
  • 10. What is wrong with school?
  • 11. “Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school.” – Albert Einstein Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://gradeproud.com
  • 12. Does education need transformation? "In large states public education will always be mediocre, for the same reason that in large kitchens the cooking is usually bad." -Nietzsche Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://thescholasticdiary.wordpress.com Source: Chambers English Dictionary
  • 13. Young people’s out-of-school experiences with technology can mean that students find the presentation of school curriculum less challenging, less relevant and less engaging. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://encefalus.com/ Source: http://community.learningobjects.com
  • 14. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://flickr.com/photos/thomcochrane/416206133/ Education is changing for young people as they experience self-directed learning, (mostly outside school) about things that interest them. Source: http://community.learningobjects.com
  • 15. “Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students.” - Paulo Friere Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://arts.anu.edu.au
  • 16. Does education need reform? Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 “The wish to preserve the past rather than the hope of creating the future dominates the minds of those who control the teaching of the young" - Bertrand Russell http://flickr.com/photos/shu1/6065783/
  • 17. The School Computer Suite... Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 http://www.hseb.utah.edu
  • 18. Objections from educators Mobile phones are banned in most schools because... ...they are distracting and disruptive. The phone becomes the focus of attention, inappropriate images/videos can be taken and sent, leading to invasion of privacy and loss of teacher control! Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 http://i.dailymail.co.uk
  • 19. Mobile phones are the natural communication tool of choice for younger users. Are we preparing this generation for the future or for the past? Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a month, and one in three send more than 100 texts a day, or more than 3,000 texts a month. (2009 statistics) Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 Source: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx http://blog.roadandtravel.com
  • 20. What are the needs of today’s learners? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 21. The Net Generation? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Digital Natives? Homo Zappiens? http://www.flickr.com/photos/56155476@N08/5667863948/
  • 22. Learners will need new ‘literacies’ Social networking Privacy maintenance Identity management Creating content Organising content Reusing and repurposing Filtering and selecting Self presenting Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.mopocket.com/
  • 23. anytime personalised anyplace Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://ithalas.com
  • 24. Trends in Education Just for me Apprenticeship model Just in case Standard Curriculum Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Just in time Bespoke Curriculum Just for me Personalised Learning Personal Learning Environment
  • 25. Personal Learning Environment Asystem that helps learners take control of and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 set their own learning goals manage their learning communicate with others User Generated Content
  • 26. What does a personal learning environment look like? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 27. Personalised Learning Today you are You, that is truer than true. There is no one alive who is Youer than You. - Dr Suess Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://images.fanpop.com/images
  • 28. Personalisation of learning means ensuring that individual differences are acknowledged Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 29. Personal Web Tools Generating Content Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Sharing Content Organising Content
  • 30. Personal Web Tools Generating Content Blog Mashup Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 E-portfolio Wiki Tagging Sharing Content Organising Content
  • 31. Personal Learning Environments PLEs are not only personal web tools and personal learning networks. PLEs are much wider than this, taking in experiences and realia, as well as learning through TV, music, paper based materials, radio & more formal contexts. Personal Learning Network Personal Learning Environment Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Learning content is not as important now as where (or who) to connect to, to find it. Personal Web Tools PWTs are any web tools, (usually Web 2.0) chosen by learners to support their lifelong learning. Source: http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/2010/07/anatomy-of-ple.html
  • 32. Learning to learn Critical thinking Collaboration Creativity Reflection Evaluation Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://socialenterpriseambassadors.org.uk
  • 33. Why social media? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 34. Social media use 2011 >750 Million >200Million 95 million tweets/day Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 >125 Million >100 Million >17 million articles (in English) >5 Billion images 3000 images/minute 2 Billion views/day 24 hours/minute Source: http://www.browsermedia.co.uk
  • 35. The global context... There are 5 billion mobile phone connections. 3 times as many mobile phones as computers on the planet. Social media use is on the rise with over 750 million users on Facebook and 24 hours of video uploaded every minute on Youtube. Data consumed in 2010 for mobiles 2.8 exabytes Data consumed in 2009 1.1 exabytes Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2011 Source: BBC News 2010
  • 36. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 With access to Social Media everyone has a voice http://www.uksmallbusinesswebsites.co.uk
  • 37. What are the new pedagogies? Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 38. Education Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within = to bring out potential Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 39. Education Educere (latin) = to draw out what is within = to bring out potential Socratic discourse is based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and illuminate ideas. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Image source: http://laescueladeateanas.files.wordpress.com
  • 40. Self Organised Learning We cannot ‘manage’ self-organised learning for our students. We can only create conducive environments within which students will organise their own learning. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 41. Formal and Informal learning Formal Learning Informal Learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 20% 80% Source: Cofer, D. (2000). Informal Workplace Learning.
  • 42. Networked learning “Understanding how networks work is one of the most important literacies of the 21st Century.” - Howard Rheingold cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 http://www.ischool.berkeley.edu
  • 43. Making Connections In connectivism, learning involves creating connections and developing a network. It is a theory for the digital age drawing upon chaos, emergent properties, and self organised learning. (It’s not what you know but who you know) cc Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2010 Source: Wikipedia http://www.pestproducts.com
  • 44. Social Networks... Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration http://www.guardian.co.uk Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://strategicdc.com Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)
  • 45. Social Networks... Redefine community, friendship, identity, presence, privacy, geography, power relationships Enable learning, connections, collaboration, sharing, exploration Networks form around shared interests, ideas and objects http://www.guardian.co.uk Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://strategicdc.com Adapted from Couros, A. (2010)
  • 46. Rhizomes Deleuze & Guattari Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ‘Anarchy’ of the Web
  • 47. Rhizomatic learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://archbold-station.org “...multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation.”
  • 48. Rhizomatic learning “In the rhizomatic view, knowledge can only be negotiated, [and is] a personal knowledge-creation process with mutable goals and constantly negotiated premises.” Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 © Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, 2008 Community as curriculum: The users become the arbiters of what constitutes knowledge Source: Cormier, D. (2008) http://davecormier.com/edblog/
  • 49. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.flickr.com/photos/luc/ Paragogy
  • 50. The kinds of learner support These are often provided by peers Social support Technical support Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Academic support Traditionally the domain of the teacher/tutor Reference: (Carnwell, 2000)
  • 51. Image source: http://businessinnovationfactory.com Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 “We are seeing peer-based learning networks where students are learning as much from each other as they are from their mentors and tutors.” – John Seely-Brown
  • 52. What will be the new teacher roles?
  • 53. “Any teacher who can be replaced by a computer.... .... should be”. - Arthur C. Clarke Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://aproposofnothing.files.wordpress.com
  • 54. “A computer once beat me at chess... Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...but was no match for me at kickboxing.” http://woodforthetrees.files.wordpress.com
  • 55. Content curation Collaboration Co-learning Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Facilitation Learning support Inspiration! http://www.flickr.com/photos/worldbank/2760560588/
  • 56. Doctors save lives. Teachers make lives. http://www.taranakicareers.co.nz Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 57. Digital Content Curation www.scoop.it/t/future-school Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 58. “We need to trust the innate ability of learners to self assess.” - Derek Robertson E-Assessment Scotland, 2010 Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011
  • 59. Ipsative assessment... Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 ...where a student’s learning is measured against previous attainment. This is observed in games where players are constantly trying to better their own previous top scores.
  • 60. Triadic assessment Self Assessment Peer Assessment Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 Tutor Assessment Triadic Assessment (Gale et al, 2002)
  • 61. Multimedia brought the world into the classroom... Smart technologies will take the classroom out into the world. Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 www.canada.com
  • 62. The future? “All too often today we are giving young people cut flowers when we should be teaching them to grow their own plants.” -John W Gardner Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 http://www.newcastle.edu.au http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/image/s_flowers-lost-gardens-of-heligan.jpg
  • 63. Thank you! Steve Wheeler, Plymouth University, 2011 W: steve-wheeler.net E: swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk B: steve-wheeler.blogspot.com T: @timbuckteeth Picture by Helen Keegan
  • 64. Steve Wheeler swheeler@plymouth.ac.uk University of Plymouth, United Kingdom This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: International Licence.