2. Goats, Buffaloes and Sheep as a Meat
The domesticated mammals provide enormous quantities of various kinds
of meat and meat products. Ungulates, such as cattle, buffaloes, goats,
sheep, reindeer, etc., provide the bulk of meat supply of the world. The
big game mammals, such as deer’s, provide the necessary proteins for
many people. Seals, whales, rabbits and even dogs, rats and bears are
also used as food in many parts of the world.
3. Source of Milk and Butter
Cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, reindeers, etc., provide milk which
forms an important product for human food. Ghee, butter, cheese and
curd are prepared from milk.
4. Commercial Products
For Furs and Hides
The hides of various domesticated as well as wild
mammals provide leather and fur for the manufacture of
clothing and for a variety of other purposes. Bear skins for
clothing, seal hides for footwear and skin of other species
Leather and fur are also used for the manufacture of
suitcases, bags, shoes, saddles, belts, purses, garments,
etc., and support big industries.
Most of the fur-bearing mammals are fast becoming
scarce so that man-made acrylic fibers, designed to look-
like fur, now compete with and replacing the natural furs.
5. Hair and wool
The wool of sheep is the most important animal fibers. It is extensively used for
weaving into cloth for winter. Goats, camels, etc., also produce wool. Hairs of
camels and a host of others are made into brushes, etc.
6. Musk Deer… Source of Perfume
Ambergris, used as a base in fine perfume, is a product of intestinal canal of sperm
whales. Musk, another substance used in perfumes, is obtained from the glands of
musk deer of Central and Eastern Asia.
7. Whales… Source of Fats
Blubber of baleen whale and seal are the source of edible fat or oil. Eskimos use
seal blubber as fuel oil. Oil of sperm whale is not edible. It is used as a base for
cosmetics and in manufacture of candles and lubricants. Pigs provide cooking fat.
8. Ivory and Baleen By Elephant and Whale
Ivory is obtained mainly from the tusks of elephants. It is used for making toys and
in decorations. Baleen or whalebone is obtained from toothless whales. It was
formerly an important commercial article.
9. Cattles, horses and Camels… Beast of burden
Various mammals have been domesticated by man to serve as beasts of burden
for transport and draft of heavy loads. In the more progressive countries, they
have been greatly replaced by automotive vehicles.
However, in the underdeveloped countries, cattle, horses, mules, sheep and goats
are still being used for work in plains and mountains, elephants in jungles, camels
and llamas in deserts, and reindeers and dogs on ice in cold countries.
10. Agricultural Animals
Bullocks, buffaloes, yak, horses and camels are employed for ploughing fields.
They provide manure in the form of dung and urine. The manure nitrifies soil and
yield fuel biogas. Bone meal is prepared by crushing bones of cattle, sheep and
goats, etc., is a good fertilizer.
Arboreal mammals such as bats, squirrels, monkeys, etc., visit one tree after
another in search of fruits may incidentally help in the pollination of flowers. In
East Indies, bats are said to pollinate bananas.
Hyenas and jackals are of great utility as scavengers in nature. The common pig
also clears away the refuge in the Indian villages and towns.
13. Pet animals
Since time immemorial, man has tried to tame a large number of mammals as pets
such as monkeys, bears, mongooses, rabbits, etc. But only dogs and cats have
become popular and of general interest.
14. Zoo Animals
Lions, tigers, horses, elephants and monkeys are generally employed in sports
and circuses. Bull fights are by no means confined to Spain only. Larger and rarer
varieties of mammals are exhibited in zoological gardens and national parks.
15. Hunting animals
Hunting is generally done by civilized man. It is actually for pleasure and
recreation. Dogs, leopards, elephants and horses are used in the hunting.
Important game animals are deer, elk, moose, mountain sheep, bear, lion, tiger,
rabbit, raccoon, opossum, tree squirrel, etc. They are sought for their heads, hides
and meat. Various countries now protect their game animals to prevent their
16. Laboratory Animals
Common mammals such as rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, pigs, monkeys, apes,
dogs, etc., are extensively used in laboratories for research and scientific studies
17. Animals in Decoration
Antlers heads, and pelts of various mammals are displayed as trophies or
mementos and for decoration of houses.