# Final Defense Presentation umair.pptx

29 de May de 2023
1 de 50

### Final Defense Presentation umair.pptx

• 2. Air University Air University A REVIEW ON STEGANOGRAPHY USING TRIGNOMETRIC CHAOTIC MAP Umair Habib Department of Mathematics Air University 2021.07. 29 Supervised By Dr. Mahwish Bano
• 3. Air University Department of Mathematics 3 of 50 Table of Contents Steganography 1 Object ives of St eganography 2 Forms of steganography: 3 Text 4 Audio 5 Video 6 Image 7 List of chaot ic maps 8
• 4. Air University Department of Mathematics 4 of 50 Table of Contents Proposed Image encryption method 9 R esult s 10 Summary / C onclusion 11
• 5. Air University Department of Mathematics 5 of 50 Steganography The art of covering a secret message within another message or a physical object is termed as Steganography.
• 6. Air University Department of Mathematics 6 of 50 History of Steganography The word “Steganography” is derived from Greek word “Steganographia” which consists of the words “Stegano” meaning “covered or concealed” and “-graphia” meaning “writing”.
• 7. Air University Department of Mathematics 7 of 50 Objectives of Steganography The major objective is to share messages or information secretly. Few of them are: 1): Hackers use steganographic techniques, for the transmission of viruses and malware. 2): Intelligence agencies uses steganographic techniques for secret communications.
• 8. Air University Department of Mathematics 8 of 50 Forms of Steganography On the basis of cover media file, Steganography can be classified into: I): Text. II): Audio. III): Video. IV): Image.
• 9. Air University Department of Mathematics 9 TEXT of 50 In this form of Steganography, the text file can be used as a cover media. To hide the message a word or line can be shifted, in the horizontal or vertical direction.
• 10. Air University Department of Mathematics 10 TECHNIQUES OF TEXT STEGANOGRAPHY of 50 There are a lot of techniques of text Steganography. Few of the techniques are listed below. a): Line shift. b): Word shift. c): Syntactic method.
• 11. Air University Department of Mathematics 11 Line shift of 50 When using this method for Steganography the text lines are shifted in the vertical direction.
• 12. Air University Department of Mathematics 12 Word shift of 50 To use this method, the words are shifted horizontally. Horizontally means either in left direction or in right direction
• 13. Air University Department of Mathematics 13 Syntactic method of 50 In this method of data hiding punctuation marks are used such as colon (:), semi colon (;) etc.
• 14. Air University Department of Mathematics 14 Model of Text Steganography of 50
• 15. Air University Department of Mathematics 15 AUDIO of 50 Audio Steganography is a technique that is implemented in order to transfer secret information by altering an audio signal in a non-understanding way.
• 16. Air University Department of Mathematics 16 TECHNIQUES OF AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY of 50 a): LSB coding b): Echo hiding c): Tone insertion
• 17. Air University Department of Mathematics 17 LSB CODING of 50 In LSB coding method, least significant bit of binary series of audio data is replaced with binary representation of secret data.
• 18. Air University Department of Mathematics 18 ECHO HIDING of 50 In this method of data hiding in an audio signal, first of all a short echo is introduced into the host signal and then the information is inserted in it.
• 19. Air University Department of Mathematics 19 TONE INSERTION of 50 Tone insertion method depends upon the embedding of low energy tones inside the considerable higher ones.
• 20. Air University Department of Mathematics 20 VIDEO STEGANOGRAPHY of 50 Video Steganography is an art of hiding any kind of file into a cover video file. The use of the video based Steganography is more safe and secure than other multimedia files.
• 21. Air University Department of Mathematics 21 Model of Video Steganography of 50
• 22. Air University Department of Mathematics 22 Techniques of Video Steganography of 50 a): Secured data transmission based video Steganography (SLSB). b): Hash based Least Significant Technique for video Steganography (HLSB)
• 23. Air University Department of Mathematics 23 SLSB of 50 An approach in which data is been inserted in the vertical and horizontal block pixels. This approach is called “SLSB”.
• 24. Air University Department of Mathematics 24 HLSB of 50 In this technique, the secret data is covered in the least significant bit of the cover images/frames. In this technique hash function is used to select the place of insertion in LSB bits.
• 25. Air University Department of Mathematics 25 IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY of 50 Image Steganography refers to the phenomenon of concealing data within an image file. The image selected for this purpose is called the cover image and the image obtained after Steganography is called the Stego-image.
• 26. Air University Department of Mathematics 26 TECHNIQUES OF IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY of 50 a): LSB insertion. b): Encryption using Chaotic Maps.
• 27. Air University Department of Mathematics 27 IMAGE of 50 For a computer, an image is a formation of numbers that represent light magnitude at different points (pixel).
• 28. Air University Department of Mathematics 28 PIXEL of 50 A pixel is the basic building block of an image. Means that image is the combination of different pixels.
• 29. Air University Department of Mathematics 29 TYPES OF IMAGE FORMATS of 50 There are a lot of image file formats. Few of them are given below. a): TIFF b): JPEG c): GIF
• 30. Air University Department of Mathematics 30 TIFF of 50 TIFF is an acronym for Tagged Image File Format. A TIFF is a file type that doesn’t lose quality.
• 31. Air University Department of Mathematics 31 JPEG of 50 The term JPEG is an acronym for Joint Photographic Expert Group which created this standard in 1992.
• 32. Air University Department of Mathematics 32 GIF of 50 This is a common file type for web projects where an image needs to load very quickly.
• 33. Air University Department of Mathematics 33 CHAOTIC MAP of 50 A Chaotic map is a type of map that displays some kind of chaotic behavior. Chaotic behavior is a behavior in which there is no specified order.
• 34. Air University Department of Mathematics 34 LIST OF CHAOTIC MAPS of 50 Few of the Chaotic maps are mentioned below. a): Trigonometric Chaotic Map. b): Tent Map. c): Logistic Map
• 35. Air University Department of Mathematics 35 TRIGONOMETRIC CHAOTIC MAP of 50 The trigonometric chaotic map is defined by the equation: where xn+1 = [0 1] and λ = 1.42
• 36. Air University Department of Mathematics 36 Cameraman Image.jpg (Figure 1) of 50
• 37. Air University Department of Mathematics 37 Histogram of Cameraman Image (Figure 2) of 50 Number of pixel
• 38. Air University Department of Mathematics 38 Proposed Image Encryption Method of 50 The proposed image encryption strategy is summed up as following. (i) The original image is scaled into size of 256 × 256 pixels. (ii) Consider a random image of the same size as original image.
• 39. Air University Department of Mathematics 39 Proposed Image Encryption Method of 50 (iii) The original image and random image is separated into square blocks. Each square of size 𝑚 × 𝑚 pixels where (5) is proposed to find 𝑚. 𝑚 = [sqrt(M*N)]/r2 (5) where 𝑟 forms a part of the secret key.
• 40. Air University Department of Mathematics 40 Proposed Image Encryption Method of 50 (iv) The following steps are performed on each square block of original and random images. a): The corresponding square of original and random images is changed over into row vector. Perform XOR on row vector of original image and random image to obtain a row vector. b): A row vector, of size [1, 𝑚 × 𝑚], is obtained by using TCM to create pseudorandom numbers. The produced numbers are utilized as pixel location files to rearrange pixel areas of the row vector.
• 41. Air University Department of Mathematics 41 Proposed Image Encryption Method of 50 c): Pixel intensity estimations of the scrambled row vector, obtained from the previous step, are changed according to equation 6. 𝐾 = sin(𝐾+𝑏) + 𝐾 (6) Where 𝐾 is a created key-stream by utilizing TCM and 𝑏 is the acquired line vector having perform XOR of original and random row vectors from the past advance.
• 42. Air University Department of Mathematics 42 Proposed Image Encryption Method of 50 d): The resultant row vector is changed over into a square, of size 𝑚 × 𝑚 pixels, and secured to shape the encoded image. (v) Pixel intensity estimations of the encoded image are changed utilizing (6). This step is performed to improve security of the proposed encryption process.
• 43. Air University Department of Mathematics 43 Encrypted image of Cameraman (Figure 3) of 50
• 44. Air University Department of Mathematics 44 Histogram of Encrypted Cameraman image Number of pixel of 50
• 45. Air University Department of Mathematics 45 Technical Terms of 50 Entropy: Entropy is defined as the amount of randomness in adjacent image pixels. NOTE:  Entropy(cipher image) > Entropy (original image).  For an encryption algorithm to be safe against entropy attacks, the entropy value of encrypted image must be close to 8.
• 46. Air University Department of Mathematics 46 of 50 Technical Terms (contd) Correlation coefficient: The similarity between adjacent image pixels are calculated by correlation coefficient. As, the value of correlation coefficient gets closer to zero, the similarity between pixels of plaintext image and cipher text image decreases.
• 47. Air University Department of Mathematics 47 of 50 Technical Terms (contd) Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR): To measure the quality of compressed image and original image PSNR is used. The higher the value of PSNR the better the quality of compressed image.
• 48. Air University Department of Mathematics 48 Experimental Results of 50 ORIGINAL IMAGE TCM BASED ENCRYPTED IMAGE λ = 1.42 NCA BASED ENCRYPTED IMAGE λ = 3.5 LM BASED ENCRYPTED IMAGE λ = 3.97 TM BASED ENCRYPTED IMAGE λ = 1.999 Entropy 7.0097 7.9772 7.0707 7.7396 7.988 Horizontal correlation 0.9206 0.0431 0.1773 0.2304 0.0346 Vertical correlation 0.9557 0.0203 0.0271 0.032 0.0269 Diagonal correlation 0.9204 0.0282 0.0255 0.0295 0.0311 Average correlation 0.9322 0.0305 0.0766 0.0973 0.0309
• 49. Air University Department of Mathematics 49 Conclusion of 50 A one dimensional trigonometric chaotic map is proposed. Experimental results indicate the randomness against entropy attacks as compared to other maps.
• 50. Air University Department of Mathematics 50 Thank you For Your Attention of 50 Feedback Concern Questions Ideas