Teaching Grammar by Uzma Bashir

18 de Dec de 2016

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Teaching Grammar by Uzma Bashir

  1. Teaching Grammar Uzma Bashir
  2. Contents • Grammar • Background of Grammar • Principles of Grammar • Techniques
  3. What is Grammar • Grammar is set of rules specifying the correct order of words at sentence level. • “ a description of the structure of a language and the way in which units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentences in the language” Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. • Sentences are acceptable if they follow the rules set out by the grammar of the language. • Example o The bit dog man the (ungrammatical) o The dog bit the man (grammatical) • Grammarians distinguish between prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammars.
  4. Types Grammar • Prescriptive: organizes the laws and concern with right and wrong. • Rules of “good” or “proper” usage, which dictate what is “good grammar” and what is “bad grammar” • Descriptive: • Descriptive grammar does not deal with what is good or bad language use; forms and structures that might not be used by speakers of Standard English would be regarded as valid and included.
  5. Background to the Teaching of Grammar • The place of grammar in the language classroom has had variable history. • 30 years ago, language and grammar teaching were the same things. • The primary aim of teaching was to ensure that leaners mastered the grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary of the language. • The dominant methodology was Audiolingualism derived from structural linguistics and behaviorist psychology. • What is ALM of foreign language teaching? • Present a new language item to be learned, giving a clear demonstration of its meaning through nonverbal means such as pictures or actions. • Do not give grammatical explanations. • Model the target pattern, using number of examples. The heart of the ALM is the substitution drills.
  6. Teaching Grammar in Context
  7. Background to the Teaching of Grammar In 1970, two development had major effect on language teaching. •Firstly, researchers began to look at the order in which learners acquired the grammar of the language. •Before this, it was assumed that the learners first language had strong effect on the order in which grammatical items were acquired. •After research it was suggested that acquisition order are determined by the nature of the language to be learned, rather than through a contrast between the first language and the target language. •The Second Development proved that language was a vehicle of communication. •This development led directly to the development of CLT.
  8. Background to teaching of Grammar • Two recent related trends in language teaching are: Focus on form: Consciousness-raising Focus on form refers to the practice of explicitly drawing students’ attention to linguistic features within the context meaning-focused activities. Communication comes first, and a focus on form comes second. Consciousness –raising is a type of focus on form approach to grammar teaching. According to Larsen-Freeman(2001, p.39-40) Students are not required to produce the target structures, instead they need to be aware of the target grammatical items through discovery oriented tasks.
  9. Principles 1. Integrate both inductive and deductive methods into your teaching. 2. Use task that clear the relationship between grammatical form and communicative functions. 3. Focus on the development of procedural rather than declarative knowledge.
  10. (1) Integrate both inductive and deductive methods into your teaching. • Deductive: Rules, patterns, principles are presented first, then moves to the examples. Deductive approach is also known as rule-driven teaching (sometimes known as inquiry or discovery teaching). • Inductive: starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred. • Teachers present the examples at the beginning then generalizing rules from the given samples.
  11. (2) Use task that clear the relationship between grammatical form and communicative functions. • Many grammar-based courses are relatively ineffective because they teach grammar as an abstract system. • They present language as isolated sentences, and fail to give learners a proper context for grammar point. • Teaching was largely limited to the form of the new grammatical item. We cannot do away with teaching grammar altogether- • The solution is to present the grammar in a context that makes clear the relationship between the grammatical form and the communicative function. • E.g. When teaching the passive voice, show Why the passive voice is used-to place emphasis on the action rather than the doer.
  12. (3) Focus on the development of procedural rather than declarative knowledge. • Declarative Knowledge: In the field of language learning, declarative knowledge is the knowing language rules. Actual information stored in memory and known to be static in nature. • Procedural knowledge: Being able to use the knowledge for communication. Procedural knowledge is the knowledge of how to perform, or how to operate • There are many learners who know the rules but fail to use them while writing or speaking. • There are some learners who have declarative knowledge but lack procedural knowledge. Vast majority of native speakers fall in this category
  13. Techniques • Doughty and Williams (1998) distinguish between techniques in which the grammar point is implicit and those in which grammar point is explicit. Explicit grammatical knowledge Implicit grammatical knowledge Implicit grammatical knowledge  Conscious knowledge  Unconscious/ subconscious Requires awareness and intention Does not need awareness and intention Accessed through explicit learning instruction Accessed through the acquisition in natural setting (spontaneous language tasks) Accessed through controlled processing Accessed through uncontrolled processing Accessed slowly Accessed quickly Involves the explanation of grammatical rules Does not involve the explanation of grammatical rules Happens both deductively and inductively Mostly happened inductively
  14. Techniques Conti… Input Enhancement: It refers to the language that is made available to the learner. It is a technique for getting students to notice the grammar item that the teacher wants to introduce. With this technique, teachers draw students’ attention to items that are meant to be noticed by “Flagging” them in some way; such as through highlighting , underlining, or coloring. Such Awareness-raising techniques are at the accuracy end of UR’s accuracy- fluency continuum. For third person singular possessive determiner: Once upon a time there was a king. He had a beautiful young daughter. For her birthday, the king gave her a golden ball that she played with every day. The king and his daughter lived near a dark forest….(Daughty and Williams)
  15. Techniques Conti… • Consciousness-raising: Consciousness raising activities are designed to get learners to notice a particular grammatical feature or principle. However, learners are not required to use or practice the target item. Read the example and work out the rule for the correct order of direct object and indirect object. We took a gift for the teacher. We took the teacher a gift. He recited a poem for his girlfriend. He recited his girlfriend a poem.
  16. Techniques Conti… • Grammar Dictation (Dictogloss, as it is called by its creator, Ruth Wajnryb) • It involves learners collaborating in small groups, actively using their language and reflecting on the way grammar works in context. • (reinforcing form/function relationship) • It also encourages students to reflect on their own out put. The technique is a relatively simple one. The teacher dictates a passage containing target language forms at normal speed. Students take notes and then work in small groups to recreate the original passage.
  17. Techniques Conti… • Garden Path: • Based on inductive learning. • Study examples and comes to an hypothesis or generalization. • Generalization to broad. • Modified hypothesis.
  18. Thank You !!