A curriculum is the instructional and the educative programme by following which the pupils achieve their goals, ideals and aspirations of life. It is curriculum through which the general aims of a school education receive concrete expression
1. Meaning of Curriculum:
The term curriculum has been derived from a Latin word
‘Currere’ which means a ‘race course’ or a runway on which one
runs to reach a goal. Accordingly, a curriculum is the instructional
and the educative programme by following which the pupils
achieve their goals, ideals and aspirations of life.
It is curriculum through which the general aims of a school
education receive concrete expression.
Traditional concept-The traditional curriculum was subject-
centered while the modern curriculum is child and life-centered.
2. Modern Concept of Curriculum:
Modern education is the combination of two dynamic
processes. The one is the process of individual development and
the other is the process of socialization, which is commonly known
as adjustment with the social environment.
3. Cunningham - “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist
(teacher) to mould his material (pupils) according to his ideas
(aims and objectives) in his studio (school)”.
4. Morroe - “Curriculum includes all those activities which are utilized
by the school to attain the aims of education.
5. Crow and Crow - The curriculum includes all the learners’
experience in or outside school that are included in a programme
which has been devised to help him developmentally, emotionally,
socially, spiritually and morally”.
6. T.P. Nunn-“The curriculum should be viewed as various forms of
activities that are grand expressions of human sprit and that are of
the greatest and most permanent significance to the wide world”.
7. • subjects that will be taught, the identified
"mission" of the school, and the knowledge
and skills that the school expects successful
students to acquire
• lessons that arise from the culture of the
school and the behaviors, attitudes, and
expectations that characterize that culture
• topics or perspectives that are specifically
excluded from the curriculum
• school-sponsored programs that are
intended to supplement the academic aspect
of the school experience
8. 1. Goals: The benchmarks or expectations for teaching and
learning often made explicit in the form of a scope and
sequence of skills to be addressed;
2. Methods: The specific instructional methods for the teacher,
often described in a teacher’s edition;
3. Materials: The media and tools that are used for teaching
4. Assessment: The reasons for and methods of measuring
9. Nature of curriculum
1. the instructional programme as indicated by the
course offerings to meet the varies requirements
of a vast heterogeneous population
2. the courses of study, embodying outlines of
knowledge to be taught
3. all the experiences provided under the guidance of
10. Nature of curriculum
Close examination of them reveals the difficulty in
the basic nature of curriculum.
1. Is it thought of as a programme and pattern of
2. Is thought of to be a content of courses?
3. Is it thought of to be experiences through which
knowledge is communicated?
11. Nature of curriculum
Curriculum is that which makes a difference between
maturity and immaturity, between growth and stasis,
between literacy and illiteracy, between sophistication
(intellectual, moral, social and emotional) and
It is the accumulated heritage of man’s knowledge
filtered through the prisms of contemporary demands
It is that wisdom considered relevant to any age in
any given location.
It is that we choose from our vast amount of heritage
of wisdom to make a difference in the life of man.
12. Scope relates to what should be taught or learned.
•Sequence relates to when different parts of the
curriculum should be learned with respect to the
other parts of the curriculum.
•Integration relates to how different strands of a
piece of curriculum relate to other things
•Continuity relates to how previous learning and
future learning relate in terms of cumulative effects
13. Scope refers to the breadth of the curriculum- the
content, learning experiences and activities to be
included in the curriculum.
The scope can be arrived at by answering the following
What do young people need in order to succeed in the
What are the needs of the locality, society, nation and
What are the essentials of the discipline?
Sequence relates to when different parts of the
curriculum should be learned with respect to the other
parts of the curriculum.
There are many ways in sequencing:
simple to complex chronological
easy to difficult developmental
prerequisite learning close at hand to far
whole to parts easy to difficult
parts to whole known to unknown
15. Balance or integration
The curriculum should integrate:
1. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives and
2. Knowledge and experience
3. Objectives and content
4. Child’s activity and needs with the society needs and
It should be related to the social environment of the
21. A change in the life style of a group, a community
or a society is called social change.
Social change includes technological changes,
economic changes, political changes and changes
The technological changes cause change in the
style of living and therefore influences the
Economic changes demand changes in curriculum
by bringing about change in occupational structure.
Political changes have an impact on curricula. The
policies of the government decide the core features
of a curriculum.
22. Values play a crucial part in the formulation and
implementation of educational ideologies.
Generally, two kinds of values enter into curriculum
making. They are:
•Ultimate values that determine the aims and
purposes of education
•Instrumental values that are related to the means of
The ultimate values and instrumental values of a
society decides the type of curriculum appropriate