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Management ofLow Birth WeightBabies
Low birth weight (LBW)   Definition   :   Birth weight                     <2500 g   Incidence    :   30% of neonates   ...
LBW: Significance    75% neonatal deaths and 50% infant     deaths occur among LBW infants    LBW babies are more prone ...
Types of LBW           2 types based on the origin                           Small-for-date (SFD) /Preterm                ...
Causation: LBWEtiology of prematurity   Low maternal weight, teenage / multiple    pregnancy   Previous preterm baby, ce...
Causation: LBWEtiology of SFD / IUGR   Poor nutritional status of mother   Hypertension, toxemia, anemia   Multiple pre...
LBW: Identification of typesPrematurity   Date of LMP   Physical features       Breast nodule       Genitalia       S...
Identification: Preterm LBW            Breast nodule   Preterm                  Term  Preterm                   Term
Identification: Preterm LBW             Male genitalia  Preterm   Preterm                    Term                         ...
Identification: Preterm LBW        Female genitalia  Preterm                  Term
Identification: Preterm LBW            Sole creases  Preterm  Term
Identification: Preterm LBW         Ear Cartilage   Preterm               Term
LBW: Identification of typesSFD / IUGR Intrauterine growth chart Physical characteristics     Emaciated look     Loose...
Intrauterine growth chart                       4400                       4000                                           ...
Identification: SFD / IUGR2.1 Kg - IUGR     3.2 Kg - AFD
LBW (Preterm) : Problems   Birth asphyxia            Retinopathy of                               prematurity   Hypothe...
LBW (SFD) : Problems   Birth asphyxia   Meconium aspiration syndrome   Hypothermia   Hypoglycemia   Infections   Pol...
LBW: Issues in delivery   Transfer mother to a well-equipped    centre before delivery   Skilled person needed for effec...
LBW: Indications for            hospitalization   Birth weight <1800 g   Gestation <34 wks   Unable to feed*   Sick ne...
LBW: Keeping warm at home                                           Birth weight (Kg)   Room                              ...
LBW: Keeping warm at home     Well covered newborn
LBW: Keeping warm in hospitalSkin-to skin method Warm room, fire or  electric heater Warmly wrapped                    ...
LBW: Keeping warm in hospitalOverheadRadiant warmer
LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight <1200 g; Gestation <30 wks*   Start initial intravenous fluids   Introduce gavage feeds on...
LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight 1200-1800 g; Gestation 30-34 wks*   Start initial gavage feeds   Katori-spoon feeding afte...
LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight >1800 g; Gestation > 34 wks*   Breast feeding   Katori-spoon feeding, if sucking not    sa...
LBW: Feeding schedule   Begin at 60 to 80ml/kg/day        Increase by 15ml/kg/day        Maximum of 180-200ml/kg/day  ...
LBW: FeedingGavage feeding
LBW: FeedingKatori-spoon feeding
Guidelines for fluid requirements    First day 60-80 ml/kg/day    Daily increment 15 ml/kg till day 7    Add extra 20-3...
Fluid requirements (ml/kg)                 Birth WeightDay of life              >1500 g   1000 – 1500g     1         60   ...
LBW: Adequacy of nutritionWeight pattern*   Loses 1 to 2% weight every day initially   Cumulative weight loss 10%; more ...
LBW: Supplements   Vitamins       : IM Vit K 1.0 mg at birth                     Vit A* 1000 I.U. per day                ...
Danger signals (Early detectionand referral)     Lethargy, refusal to feed     Hypothermia     Tachypnea, grunt, gaspin...
Transportation of LBW baby   Adequate warmth   Life support   With mother   Referral note
Prognosis   Mortality       Inversely related to birth weight and gestation       Directly related to severity of compl...
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Management of lbw low birthweight babies

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Management of lbw low birthweight babies

  1. 1. Management ofLow Birth WeightBabies
  2. 2. Low birth weight (LBW) Definition : Birth weight <2500 g Incidence : 30% of neonates in India
  3. 3. LBW: Significance  75% neonatal deaths and 50% infant deaths occur among LBW infants  LBW babies are more prone to:  Malnutrition  Recurrent infections  Neuro developmental delayLBW babies have higher mortality and morbidity
  4. 4. Types of LBW 2 types based on the origin Small-for-date (SFD) /Preterm intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) < 37 completed  < 10th centile for weeks of gestation gestational age Account for 1/3rd of  Account for 2/3rd of LBW LBW neonates
  5. 5. Causation: LBWEtiology of prematurity Low maternal weight, teenage / multiple pregnancy Previous preterm baby, cervical incompetence Antepartum hemorrhage, acute systemic disease Induced premature delivery Majority unknown
  6. 6. Causation: LBWEtiology of SFD / IUGR Poor nutritional status of mother Hypertension, toxemia, anemia Multiple pregnancy, post maturity Chronic malaria, chronic illness Tobacco use
  7. 7. LBW: Identification of typesPrematurity Date of LMP Physical features  Breast nodule  Genitalia  Sole creases  Ear cartilage / recoil
  8. 8. Identification: Preterm LBW Breast nodule Preterm Term Preterm Term
  9. 9. Identification: Preterm LBW Male genitalia Preterm Preterm Term Term
  10. 10. Identification: Preterm LBW Female genitalia Preterm Term
  11. 11. Identification: Preterm LBW Sole creases Preterm Term
  12. 12. Identification: Preterm LBW Ear Cartilage Preterm Term
  13. 13. LBW: Identification of typesSFD / IUGR Intrauterine growth chart Physical characteristics  Emaciated look  Loose folds of skin  Lack of subcutaneous tissue  Head bigger than chest by >3cm
  14. 14. Intrauterine growth chart 4400 4000 90th percentile LARGE FOR DATE 3600Birth weight (grams) 3200 APPROPRIATE FOR DATE 2800 2400 10th percentile 2000 1600 SMALL FOR DATE 1200 800 PRETERM TERM POST-TERM 400 31 33 35 37 39 42 44 45 Gestation (weeks)
  15. 15. Identification: SFD / IUGR2.1 Kg - IUGR 3.2 Kg - AFD
  16. 16. LBW (Preterm) : Problems Birth asphyxia  Retinopathy of prematurity Hypothermia  Apneic spells Feeding difficulties  Intraventricular Infections hemorrhage Hyperbilirubinemia  Hypoglycemia Respiratory distress  Metabolic acidosis
  17. 17. LBW (SFD) : Problems Birth asphyxia Meconium aspiration syndrome Hypothermia Hypoglycemia Infections Polycythemia
  18. 18. LBW: Issues in delivery Transfer mother to a well-equipped centre before delivery Skilled person needed for effective resuscitation Prevention of hypothermia - topmost priority
  19. 19. LBW: Indications for hospitalization Birth weight <1800 g Gestation <34 wks Unable to feed* Sick neonate** Irrespective of birth weight and gestation
  20. 20. LBW: Keeping warm at home Birth weight (Kg) Room temperature (0C) 1.0 – 1.5 34 – 35 1.5 – 2.0 32 – 34 2.0 – 2.5 30 – 32 > 2.5 28 - 30 Skin-to-skin contact Warm room, fire or heater Convection EvaporationRadiation Conduction Prevent heat losses Baby warmly wrapped
  21. 21. LBW: Keeping warm at home Well covered newborn
  22. 22. LBW: Keeping warm in hospitalSkin-to skin method Warm room, fire or electric heater Warmly wrapped Radiant warmerHeated water-filled mattress Air-heated Incubator
  23. 23. LBW: Keeping warm in hospitalOverheadRadiant warmer
  24. 24. LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight <1200 g; Gestation <30 wks* Start initial intravenous fluids Introduce gavage feeds once stable Shift to katori-spoon feeds over next few days. Later on breast feeds* May try gavage feeds, if not sick
  25. 25. LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight 1200-1800 g; Gestation 30-34 wks* Start initial gavage feeds Katori-spoon feeding after 1-3 days Shift to breast feeds as soon as baby is able to suck* May need intravenous fluids, if sick
  26. 26. LBW: Fluids and feedingWeight >1800 g; Gestation > 34 wks* Breast feeding Katori-spoon feeding, if sucking not satisfactory on breast Shift to breast feeds as soon as possible
  27. 27. LBW: Feeding schedule Begin at 60 to 80ml/kg/day  Increase by 15ml/kg/day  Maximum of 180-200ml/kg/day First feed at 2 hrs of age then every 2 hourly
  28. 28. LBW: FeedingGavage feeding
  29. 29. LBW: FeedingKatori-spoon feeding
  30. 30. Guidelines for fluid requirements  First day 60-80 ml/kg/day  Daily increment 15 ml/kg till day 7  Add extra 20-30 ml/kg for infants under radiant warmer and 15 ml/kg for those receiving phototherapy
  31. 31. Fluid requirements (ml/kg) Birth WeightDay of life >1500 g 1000 – 1500g 1 60 80 2 75 95 3 90 110 4 105 125 5 120 140 6 135 155 7 onwards 150 170
  32. 32. LBW: Adequacy of nutritionWeight pattern* Loses 1 to 2% weight every day initially Cumulative weight loss 10%; more in preterm Regains birth weight by 10-14 days Then gains weight up to 1 to 1.5% of birth weight dailyExcessive loss or inadequate weight Cold stress, anemia, poor intake, sepsis* SFD - LBW term baby does not lose weight
  33. 33. LBW: Supplements Vitamins : IM Vit K 1.0 mg at birth Vit A* 1000 I.U. per day Vit D* 400 I.U. per day Iron : Oral 2 mg/kg per day from 8 weeks of age*From 2 weeks of age
  34. 34. Danger signals (Early detectionand referral)  Lethargy, refusal to feed  Hypothermia  Tachypnea, grunt, gasping, apnea  Seizures, vacant stare  Abdominal distension  Bleeding, icterus over palms/soles
  35. 35. Transportation of LBW baby Adequate warmth Life support With mother Referral note
  36. 36. Prognosis Mortality  Inversely related to birth weight and gestation  Directly related to severity of complications Long term  Depends on birth weight, gestation and severity of complications

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