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Information systems development methodologies (autosaved)
Ss. Kiril and Metodius – Faculty od Economics, SkopjeVaska Chobanova index no: 4712 Homework 1: Information Systems Development MethodologiesThis purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the information systems developmentmethodologies available. A software development methodology or system developmentmethodology in software engineering is a framework that is used to structure, plan, and controlthe process of developing an information system. Here are some iterative methodologies that can beused especially for large projects and some of their characteristics.Spiral ModelThe idea is evolutionary development, using the waterfall model for each step; its intended to helpmanage risks. Dont define in detail the entire system at first. The developers should only define thehighest priority features. Define and implement those, then get feedback from users/customers (suchfeedback distinguishes "evolutionary" from "incremental" development). With this knowledge, theyshould then go back to define and implement more features in smaller chunks. Each iteration of theprototype represented as a cycle in the spiral. The Spiral software development model is a risk-oriented. Use the spiral model in projects where business goals are unstable but the architecturemust be realized well enough to provide high loading and stress ability.Recognizing: 1. Focus is on risk assessment and on minimizing project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process, as well as providing the opportunity to evaluate risks and weigh consideration of project continuation throughout the life cycle. 2. Each cycle involves a progression through the same sequence of steps, for each portion of the product and for each of its levels of elaboration, from an overall concept-of- operation document down to the coding of each individual program. 3. Each trip around the spiral traverses four basic quadrants: (1) determine objectives, alternatives, and constraints of the iteration; (2) evaluate alternatives; identify and resolve risks; (3) develop and verify deliverables from the iteration; and (4) plan the next iteration. 4. Begin each cycle with an identification of stakeholders and their win conditions, and end each cycle with review and commitment.Phases: 1. Project Objectives. Similar to the system conception phase of the Waterfall Model. Objectives are determined, possible obstacles are identified and alternative approaches are weighed. 2. Risk Assessment. Possible alternatives are examined by the developer, and associated risks/problems are identified. Resolutions of the risks are evaluated and weighed in the consideration of project continuation. Sometimes prototyping is used to clarify needs. 3. Engineering & Production. Detailed requirements are determined and the software piece is developed. 4. Planning and Management. The customer is given an opportunity to analyze the results of the version created in the Engineering step and to offer feedback to the developer.Variations. Win-Win Spiral Process Model is a model of a process based on Theory W, which is amanagement theory and approach "based on making winners of all of the systems key stakeholdersas a necessary and sufficient condition for project success."Incremental DevelopmentHere the project is divided into small parts. This allows the development team to demonstrate resultsearlier on in the process and obtain valuable feedback from system users. Often, each iteration isactually a mini-Waterfall process with the feedback from one phase providing vital information forthe design of the next phase.Recognizing:1. A series of mini-Waterfalls are performed, where all phases of the Waterfall development model are completed for a small part of the system, before proceeding to the next increment; OR
Homework 1 ISDM Vaska Chobanova index no: 47122. Overall requirements are defined before proceeding to evolutionary, mini-Waterfall development of individual increments of the system, OR3. The initial software concept, requirements analysis, and design of architecture and system core are defined using the Waterfall approach, followed by iterative Prototyping, which culminates in installation of the final prototype (i.e., working system).Phases: 1. Inception. Identifies project scope, risks, and requirements (functional and non-functional) at a high level but in enough detail that work can be estimated. 2. Elaboration. Delivers a working architecture 3. Construction 4. TransitionVariations . A number of process models have evolved from the iterative approach. All of thesemethods produce some demonstrable software product early on in the process in order to obtainvaluable feedback from system users or other members of the project team. In some, the softwareproducts which are produced at the end of each step (or series of steps) can go into productionimmediately as incremental releases.Prototype ModelThe prototype model is used to overcome the limitations of waterfall model. In this model, instead offreezing the requirements before coding or design, a prototype is built to clearly understand therequirements. This prototype is built based on the current requirements. Through examining thisprototype, the client gets a better understanding of the features of the final product. The processesinvolved in the prototyping approach are shown in the figure below.Recognizing:1. Not a stand alone, complete development methodology, but rather an approach to handling selected portions of a larger, more traditional development methodology (i.e., Incremental, Spiral, or Rapid Application Development (RAD)).2. Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process.3. User is involved throughout the process, which increases the likelihood of user acceptance of the final implementation.4. Small-scale mock-ups of the system are developed following an iterative modification process until the prototype evolves to meet the users’ requirements.5. While most prototypes are developed with the expectation that they will be discarded, it is possible in some cases to evolve from prototype to working system.6. A basic understanding of the fundamental business problem - necessary to avoid solving wrong problem.Phases: 1. Requirements Definition/Collection. Similar to the Conceptualization phase of the waterfall model, but not as comprehensive. The information collected is usually limited to a subset of the complete system requirements. 2. Design. Once the initial layer of requirements information is collected, or new information is gathered, it is rapidly integrated into a new or existing design so that it may be folded into the prototype. 3. Prototype Creation/Modification. The information from the design is rapidly rolled into a prototype. This may mean the creation/modification of paper information, new coding, modifications to existing coding. 4. Assessment. The prototype is presented to the customer for review. Comments and suggestions are collected from the customer. 5. Prototype Refinement. Information collected from the customer is digested and the prototype is refined. The developer revises the prototype to make it more effective and efficient. 6. System Implementation. In most cases, the system is rewritten once requirements are understood. Sometimes, the Iterative process eventually produces a working system that can be the cornerstone for the fully functional system.Variation. A popular variation is called Rapid Application Development (RAD). It introduces strict timelimits on each development phase and relies heavily on RA tools (allow quick development). 2
Homework 1 ISDM Vaska Chobanova index no: 4712Comparison of modelsBesides the characteristics described earlier in this document, here I make a contrast of the modelsby listing the positive and negative sides of each.ISDM Advantages DisadvantagesSpiral Allows development to begin even when all the Involves higher cost - needs to be system requirements are not known or understood iterated more than once by the development team Not suitable for smaller projects Good for large and critical projects Project success depends on the risk Working software is produced early in the analysis phase - hence, it requires highly lifecycle specific expertise in risk analysis Large amount of risk analysis and incorporates Limited reusability prototyping as a risk reduction strategy No established controls for moving from Can incorporate Waterfall, Prototyping, and one cycle to another cycle, no firm Incremental methodologies as special cases in the deadlines, lack of milestones framework Management is dubious Focus on early error detection and design flaws Identical approaches for development and maintenanceIncremental Potential exists for exploiting knowledge gained Very rigid and do not overlap phases in early increments. Not all the requirements are gathered Moderate control over the life of the project before starting the development; this through the use of written documentation and the could lead to problems related to system formal review and approval/signoff by the user and architecture at later iterations. information technology management at designated The user community needs to be major milestones actively involved throughout the project - Stakeholders can be given concrete evidence of time of the staff, project delay. project status throughout the life cycle. Communication and coordination skills Helps to mitigate integration/architectural risks. take central stage in the development. Allows delivery of a series of implementations Informal requests for improvement that are gradually more complete and can go into after each phase may lead to confusion - production more quickly as incremental releases controlled mechanism for handling Gradual implementation provides the ability to substantive requests needs to be monitor the effect of incremental changes, isolate developed. issues and make adjustments before the Possible “scope creep (user feedback on organization is negatively impacted each phase increases customer demands.Prototype Benefits from user input No “Current” Documents As a working model of the system is provided, Increases complexity of the overall users get a better understanding of the system that system is being developed Involves exploratory methodology and Errors and risks can be detected at a much therefore involves higher risk. earlier stage, as the system is developed using Involves implementing and then prototypes repairing the way a system is built, so Addresses: inability of many users to specify errors are an inherent part of the their information needs; difficulty of systems development process. analysts to understand the user’s environment Can lead to false expectations and Can be used to realistically model important poorly designed systems. aspects of a system during each phase of the Approval process and control is not traditional life cycle strict. Improves user participation in system Requirements may frequently change development and communication among project significantly. stakeholders 3
Homework 1 ISDM Vaska Chobanova index no: 4712Here is another table that consists of the situations where each model is the most appropriate forapplying. The data is based on my previous analysis and additional data collected from the internet. Spiral Incremental PrototypeSystems Real-time or safety-critical Web Information Systems Online systems (with systems. (WIS) and event-driven extensive user dialog), or less systems and leading-edge well-defined expert and applications decision support systemProject size Large, high-cost projects Large projects, long duration Large projects (many users, interrelationships, functions)Risk Risk avoidance - high priority Integration and architectural Project risk for requirements risks exist definition is high and should be reducedRequirements Requirement exists for strong Requirements are not well Functional requirements may approval and documentation understood or are changing, change frequently and control. no or little data for the significantly. projectResource No need to absolutely No need to absolutelyconsumption minimize resource minimize resource consumption consumptionProject team Project manager: skilled and Project manager and team experienced. members: experienced, team composition: stable.Other High degree of accuracy Unclear project objectives Project might benefit from a Pressure for immediate mix of other development implementation methodologies. Not fully knowledgeable user Implementation has priority Future scalability of design is over functionality not criticalConclusionWhy there are so many System Development Methodologies is because all projects and systemsrequire its own road to run. And not each method will be suitable for another one. Selecting thecorrect software development methodology with a proper cost-benefit analysis for a project can helpprojects to release successfully, on time, and within budget. Once an organization has determinedwhich methodologies will work best for its projects it can ensure that there is a repeatable processestablished that will ensure successful projects. Tackling a project blindly with no process defined willresult in undesirable product. Errors in the products are common, yet if the process is utilizedproperly, they can be eliminated quickly. Choosing the better approach or simply understanding themethodologies is important to ensure the right project/product is a result from the hard work. 4