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Improvement in food resources

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Class 9, Improvement in food resources
crop improvement techniques and animal husbandry

Publicado en: Educación
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Improvement in food resources

  1. 1. IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES BY: Ms. VASUDHA SINGH
  2. 2. We get carbohydrate from: WHEAT • MILLETS • SORGHUM • RICE • MAIZE
  3. 3. WE GET PROTEINS FROM: • GRAM • PEA • BLACK GRAM • GREENGRAM(MOONG) • PIGEON PEA • LENTIL
  4. 4. OILSEEDS PROVIDE US WITH NECESSARY FATS
  5. 5. VEGETABLES, SPICES AND FRUITS PROVIDE US WITH VITAMINS AND MINERALS
  6. 6. FODDER CROPS ARE RAISED AS FOOD FOR LIVESTOCK • BERSEEM SUDAN GRASS • OATS
  7. 7. • Photoperiod- duration of sunlight. • Growth of plants and flowering are dependent on sunlight. • Based on amount of sunlight required, crops are divided into- KHARIF CROPS RABI CROPS
  8. 8. KHARIF CROPS RABI CROPS Crops grown in rainy season from the month of June to October are called Kharif crops Crops grown in winter season from the month of November to April are called Rabi crops. E.gs., Paddy, soya bean, pigeon pea, maize, cotton, green gram and black gram E.g., Wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed
  9. 9. HOW TO IMPROVE CROP YIELDS? • Crop variety improvement • Crop production improvement • Crop protection management
  10. 10. • Hybridization- Hybridization refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants. • Intervarietal Hybridization (between two different varieties)
  11. 11. Interspecific hybridization (between two different species of same genus)
  12. 12. Intergeneric hybridization(between different genera)
  13. 13. • HIGHER YIELD • BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC RESISTANCE • CHANGE IN MATURITY DURATION • WIDER ADAPTABILITY • DESIRABLE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
  14. 14. • Manure is prepared by decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. • Manure increases soil fertility and its organic material iproves soil structure. • Based on biological material used, manure can be classified as- • Compost and Vermicompost
  15. 15. GREEN MANURE
  16. 16. FERTILISERS
  17. 17. MANURES FERTILISERS It is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. They are commercially produced plant nutrients. It is not nutrient specific It is nutrient specific. It is bulky and difficult to transport. It is in powder form and easy to transport It improves soil structure It does not improve soil structure. It is not water soluble and hence takes time to be absorbed by plants It is water soluble and can be easily absorbed It does not cause water pollution It causes water pollution It is cheap It is costly
  18. 18. IRRIGATION The supply of water to the crops is called irrigation. Water is necessary for the proper growth of plants and helps to increase crop yield.
  19. 19. DUGWELL TUBEWELL
  20. 20. RIVER CANAL
  21. 21. RIVER LIFT SYSTEM
  22. 22. RIVER TANK SYSTEM
  23. 23. CHECK DAMS USED RAIN WATER HARVESTING
  24. 24. MIXED CROPPING-Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land.
  25. 25. INTERCROPPING-Growing two or more crops on the same piece of land simultaneously in a definite pattern.
  26. 26. CROP ROTATION-The growing of different crops on the same piece of land in a pre-planned succession.
  27. 27. • ADVANTAGES OF CROPPING PATTERNS • Reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of crops. • Ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied. • Prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all plants. • In crop rotation, according to the availability of moisture and climate , crop can be selected after one harvest. • It allows cultivation of two or more crops resulting in good harvest.
  28. 28. WEEDS- UNWANTED PLANTS XANTHIUM PARTHENIUM CYPERINUS
  29. 29. • Weeds compete for nutrients, space and light and reduce the growth of crop. • Weeds are either removed manually, mechanically by ploughing or by using weedicides.
  30. 30. BORE INTO STEM SUCKING THE CELL SAP FROM LEAF CUTTING THE LEAVES BORE INTO FRUITS
  31. 31. • PEST CONTROL • Pull out any weak plants. • Build healthy, organic soil. • Minimize insect habitat. • Interplant and rotate crops • Use of pesticides
  32. 32. 1. Abiotic factors • These are the factors, which are not due to any living organism. The various Abiotic factors which damage the stored food materials are: • (a) Temperature • (b) Moisture content in food grains • (c) Moisture in the air (humidity) • (d) Material of the containers used for storage. STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS The factors which can cause damage to the stored food materials can be divided into two categories: 1. Abiotic factors 2. Biotic factors
  33. 33. FUMIGATION STACKING UP OF GRAIN SACKS
  34. 34. • ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
  35. 35. MILCH ANIMALS DROUGHT ANIMALS
  36. 36. • INCREASING MILK PRODUCTION Exotic breeds like Jersey or brown Swiss are selected for long lactation periods. Local breeds like Red Sindhi or Sahiwal show excellent resistance to diseases. The two can be cross bred to get animals with desired characteristics.
  37. 37. • Caring for cattle: • Animals require regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair. • They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofs • The floor of the cattle shed should be sloping so as to stay dry and to facilitate cleaning.
  38. 38. HEALTHY ANIMAL SICK ANIMAL Feeds regularly Doesn’t feed Is active Is dull or listless Normal posture Drooping posture ECTOPARASITES ENDOPARASITES
  39. 39. • Ectoparasites live on the skin and cause mainly skin diseases. • Endoparasites like worms, affect stomach and intestine while flukes damage the liver. • Bacteria and viruses cause infectious diseases. • Vaccinations are given to farm animals against • infectious diseases.
  40. 40. • POULTRY BREEDS are divided into • LAYERS-for laying eggs • BROILERS- for meat production LAYERS BROILERS
  41. 41. • Following desirable traits are required in cross bred poultry varieties: • Number and quality of chicks • Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production • Summer adaptation capacity • Low maintenance requirements • Reduction in the size of egg laying birds with ability to utilize more fibrous cheaper diets.
  42. 42. • Fish is a cheap source of animal protein • Fish production includes finned true fish as well as shelled fish. • There are two ways of obtaining fishes: • Culture fishing Capture fishing
  43. 43. • Marine fishes are caught using fishing nets from fishing boats. • Popular marine fishes are- Pomphret, Mackerel, Tuna, Sardines, Bombay duck. • Fishes like Prawns, Oysters and Mussels are cultivated in sea water. Oysters are cultivated for pearls. MARICULTURE MARINE FISHERIES
  44. 44. INLAND FISHERIES •Aquaculture is done in brackish water sources such as estuaries and lagoons. •Fish culture is sometimes done in combination with a rice crop. •Composite fish culture involves combination of five or six fish species in a single fish pond. •Catlas are surface feeders, Rohus are middle zone feeders, Mrigals and common carps are bottom feeders.
  45. 45. BEE KEEPING INDIAN BEE Apis cerana indica
  46. 46. PASTURAGE FOR BEES

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