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VEGETABLES, SPICES AND FRUITS PROVIDE
US WITH VITAMINS AND MINERALS
FODDER CROPS ARE RAISED AS FOOD
• BERSEEM SUDAN GRASS
• Photoperiod- duration of sunlight.
• Growth of plants and flowering are dependent on sunlight.
• Based on amount of sunlight required, crops are divided into-
KHARIF CROPS RABI CROPS
KHARIF CROPS RABI CROPS
Crops grown in rainy season from the month of
June to October are called Kharif crops
Crops grown in winter season from the month
of November to April are called Rabi crops.
E.gs., Paddy, soya bean, pigeon pea, maize,
cotton, green gram and black gram
E.g., Wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed
HOW TO IMPROVE CROP YIELDS?
• Crop variety improvement
• Crop production improvement
• Crop protection management
• Hybridization- Hybridization refers to crossing between
genetically dissimilar plants.
• Intervarietal Hybridization (between two different
Interspecific hybridization (between two
different species of same genus)
• Manure is prepared by decomposition of animal
excreta and plant waste.
• Manure increases soil fertility and its organic
material iproves soil structure.
• Based on biological material used, manure can
be classified as-
• Compost and Vermicompost
It is prepared by the decomposition of
animal excreta and plant waste.
They are commercially produced plant
It is not nutrient specific It is nutrient specific.
It is bulky and difficult to transport. It is in powder form and easy to transport
It improves soil structure It does not improve soil structure.
It is not water soluble and hence takes
time to be absorbed by plants
It is water soluble and can be easily
It does not cause water pollution It causes water pollution
It is cheap It is costly
The supply of water to the crops is called irrigation.
Water is necessary for the proper growth of plants and
helps to increase crop yield.
MIXED CROPPING-Growing two or more
crops simultaneously on the same piece of land.
INTERCROPPING-Growing two or more crops on
the same piece of land simultaneously in a definite
CROP ROTATION-The growing of different crops on
the same piece of land in a pre-planned succession.
• ADVANTAGES OF CROPPING PATTERNS
• Reduces risk and gives some insurance against
failure of crops.
• Ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients
• Prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all
• In crop rotation, according to the availability of
moisture and climate , crop can be selected after
• It allows cultivation of two or more crops resulting
in good harvest.
• Weeds compete for nutrients, space and light and
reduce the growth of crop.
• Weeds are either removed manually, mechanically by
ploughing or by using weedicides.
BORE INTO STEM
SUCKING THE CELL SAP FROM
CUTTING THE LEAVES
BORE INTO FRUITS
• PEST CONTROL
• Pull out any weak
• Build healthy,
• Minimize insect
• Interplant and rotate
• Use of pesticides
1. Abiotic factors
• These are the factors, which are not due to any living organism. The
various Abiotic factors which damage the stored food materials are:
• (a) Temperature
• (b) Moisture content in food grains
• (c) Moisture in the air (humidity)
• (d) Material of the containers used for storage.
STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS
The factors which can cause damage to the stored food
materials can be divided into two categories:
1. Abiotic factors
2. Biotic factors
• INCREASING MILK PRODUCTION
Exotic breeds like Jersey or brown Swiss are selected
for long lactation periods.
Local breeds like Red Sindhi or Sahiwal show excellent
resistance to diseases. The two can be cross bred to get
animals with desired characteristics.
• Caring for cattle:
• Animals require regular brushing to remove dirt and
• They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofs
• The floor of the cattle shed should be sloping so as to
stay dry and to facilitate cleaning.
HEALTHY ANIMAL SICK ANIMAL
Feeds regularly Doesn’t feed
Is active Is dull or listless
Normal posture Drooping posture
• Ectoparasites live on the skin and cause mainly skin diseases.
• Endoparasites like worms, affect stomach and intestine while flukes
damage the liver.
• Bacteria and viruses cause infectious diseases.
• Vaccinations are given to farm animals against
• infectious diseases.
• POULTRY BREEDS are divided into
• LAYERS-for laying eggs
• BROILERS- for meat production
• Following desirable traits are required in cross bred
• Number and quality of chicks
• Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production
• Summer adaptation capacity
• Low maintenance requirements
• Reduction in the size of egg laying birds with ability to
utilize more fibrous cheaper diets.
• Fish is a cheap source of animal protein
• Fish production includes finned true fish as well as
• There are two ways of obtaining fishes:
• Culture fishing Capture fishing
• Marine fishes are caught using
fishing nets from fishing boats.
• Popular marine fishes are-
Pomphret, Mackerel, Tuna,
Sardines, Bombay duck.
• Fishes like Prawns, Oysters
and Mussels are cultivated in
sea water. Oysters are
cultivated for pearls.
•Aquaculture is done in brackish water sources
such as estuaries and lagoons.
•Fish culture is sometimes done in combination
with a rice crop.
•Composite fish culture involves combination of
five or six fish species in a single fish pond.
•Catlas are surface feeders, Rohus are middle
zone feeders, Mrigals and common carps are