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Slide 9 The consequences of insulin resistance at the tissue level include decreased insulin-dependent glucose uptake into liver, adipose tissue and muscle. This combined with excessive glucose production by the liver leads to hyperglycemia. In addition, excessive breakdown of triglycerides in the adipose tissue leads to increased circulating free fatty acids. This is particularly important since not only do free fatty acids compete for glucose during metabolism, but there is also increasing evidence that elevated free fatty acids are toxic to the pancreas.
While insulin resistance is fundamental to the development of type 2 diabetes, it is also central to the insulin resistance syndrome, often known as the metabolic syndrome or syndrome X. First described by Reaven in 1988, this comprises a cluster of metabolic disorders associated with insulin resistance, including coronary heart disease, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Slide 13