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Vinodh Kumar,O.R and J. P. Yadav
Division of Epidemiology
ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izatnagar, Uttar Prade...
 Ongoing , continuous, routine observation on health and production
of animal
 Ongoing efforts directed at assessing the...
 Surveillance is continuous scrutening or watchfulness over
the distribution and spread of infection or disease for
effec...
 1374- Italy for control of Human plague.
 1711-1774- Lansisi used Rinderpest surveillance.
 1920 (Belgium)- check the ...
S.NO. Monitoring Surveillance
1 Specific and essential part of
surveillance.
Broad term, Monitoring is one of
constituent....
 Essential part of disease control
 Originally applied to individual/ primarily to contacts of
serious communicable dise...
 Rapid detection of disease outbreak
 Early identification of disease problem
 Assessment of health status of a defined...
 Sentinel surveillance
 Serological surveillance(sero-surveillance)
 Passive surveillance
 Active surveillance
 Targe...
 Entire national herd- Testing of Bovine brucellosis
 Few farms, Abattoirs, veterinary practices or laboratories
 Ex- s...
 Identification of patterns of current and past infection using
serological test.
 Ex- Food and mouth disease in Europea...
 Continuous monitoring of the existing disease status of the
population that are survived
 Ex- reports of laboratory dia...
 Collect information commonly by undertaking surveys of
specific diseases.
 Based on well diagnosed surveys.
Advantage:-...
 Collect specific information about a defined disease so that
its level in a defined population can be measured and its
o...
 Continuous watch over endemic diseases
 Trigger a more detailed investigation to explore the
likelihood of a new diseas...
 For Epidemiological surveillance program priority should be given
to-
 Disease with higher case fatality rate
 Higher ...
 Well organized health and Epidemiological services
 Adequately equipped and suitably staffed laboratory
diagnostic serv...
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Monitoring and Surveillance

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Monitoring and Surveillance

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Monitoring and Surveillance

  1. 1. Vinodh Kumar,O.R and J. P. Yadav Division of Epidemiology ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
  2. 2.  Ongoing , continuous, routine observation on health and production of animal  Ongoing efforts directed at assessing the health and disease status of a given population  Essential integral component of management planning.  Direct relationship between the accuracy of condition that management can deliver and the level of accuracy that a monitoring project is designed to measure.  Development of any monitoring strategy should be based on availability of resource and on a risk assessment. (Martin et al., 1987; Thrusfield, 2005)
  3. 3.  Surveillance is continuous scrutening or watchfulness over the distribution and spread of infection or disease for effective control and prevention of disease. (Last, 2001)  Surveillance is a more intensive form of data recording than monitoring (Thrusfield, 2005)  Surveillance refers to a specific extension of monitoring where obtained information is utilised and measures are taken if certain threshold values related to disease status have been passed (Noordhuizen et al. 1997) Use:-  Planning and assessment of disease control measures.
  4. 4.  1374- Italy for control of Human plague.  1711-1774- Lansisi used Rinderpest surveillance.  1920 (Belgium)- check the spread of R.P. a committee is formed, later known as O.I.E.
  5. 5. S.NO. Monitoring Surveillance 1 Specific and essential part of surveillance. Broad term, Monitoring is one of constituent. 2 Carried out by any technician or any automated machine. Require professional analysis and sofisticated judegement of data leading to recommendation of control action. 3 Formulated standard. Lacks formulated standards. 4 Differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable change. Doesn’t differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable change.
  6. 6.  Essential part of disease control  Originally applied to individual/ primarily to contacts of serious communicable diseases(Pneumonic Plague)  Later includes diseases and related factors  More intensive form of data recording than monitoring and has three distinct element (Christensen, 2001). o Gathering, recording and analysis of data o Dissemination of information to interested parties o Action can be taken to control the disease
  7. 7.  Rapid detection of disease outbreak  Early identification of disease problem  Assessment of health status of a defined population  Definition of priorities for a disease control and prevention  Identification of new and emerging disease  Evaluation of disease control programmes  Provision of information to plan and conduct research  Confirmation of options of a specific disease
  8. 8.  Sentinel surveillance  Serological surveillance(sero-surveillance)  Passive surveillance  Active surveillance  Targeted surveillance  Scanning surveillance
  9. 9.  Entire national herd- Testing of Bovine brucellosis  Few farms, Abattoirs, veterinary practices or laboratories  Ex- sentinel equine premises for vesicular stomatitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis  Stray dogs for canine parvo virus  Domestic animals for Human environmental health hazards, carcinogens and insecticides
  10. 10.  Identification of patterns of current and past infection using serological test.  Ex- Food and mouth disease in European union
  11. 11.  Continuous monitoring of the existing disease status of the population that are survived  Ex- reports of laboratory diagnosis, routine meat inspections finding and statutory notification of disease  Essentially monitoring with the intention of acting on its finding. Disadvantage:-  Uses data that may be biased, frequently lacking denominator values and can’t give unbiased estimates of disease frequency. (Thrusfield, 2005)
  12. 12.  Collect information commonly by undertaking surveys of specific diseases.  Based on well diagnosed surveys. Advantage:-  Can produce the unbiased estimate (Thrusfield, 2005)
  13. 13.  Collect specific information about a defined disease so that its level in a defined population can be measured and its options monitored.  Focuses on population that are at increased risk of being affected. Ex :- Targeting of fallen stock for surveillance of B.S.E.
  14. 14.  Continuous watch over endemic diseases  Trigger a more detailed investigation to explore the likelihood of a new disease occuring  Also kwon as syndromic surveillance  Inexpensive and faster than systems that requires laboratory confirmation  First kind of surveillance begun in developing country Disadvantage:-  Lack of specificity (Thrusfield, 2005)
  15. 15.  For Epidemiological surveillance program priority should be given to-  Disease with higher case fatality rate  Higher prevalance  For which country has control measure  Seriousness and economic importance  Geographical distribution  Potencial for spread in the country or region or in the world
  16. 16.  Well organized health and Epidemiological services  Adequately equipped and suitably staffed laboratory diagnostic services  A controlled agency to collect, annalyse and disseminate consolidated information

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