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Vinodh Kumar,O.R and J. P. Yadav
Division of Epidemiology
ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
Ongoing , continuous, routine observation on health and production
Ongoing efforts directed at assessing the health and disease status of
a given population
Essential integral component of management planning.
Direct relationship between the accuracy of condition that
management can deliver and the level of accuracy that a monitoring
project is designed to measure.
Development of any monitoring strategy should be based on
availability of resource and on a risk assessment.
(Martin et al., 1987; Thrusfield, 2005)
Surveillance is continuous scrutening or watchfulness over
the distribution and spread of infection or disease for
effective control and prevention of disease.
Surveillance is a more intensive form of data recording
than monitoring (Thrusfield, 2005)
Surveillance refers to a specific extension of monitoring
where obtained information is utilised and measures
are taken if certain threshold values related to disease status
have been passed (Noordhuizen et al. 1997)
Planning and assessment of disease control measures.
1374- Italy for control of Human plague.
1711-1774- Lansisi used Rinderpest surveillance.
1920 (Belgium)- check the spread of R.P. a committee is
formed, later known as O.I.E.
S.NO. Monitoring Surveillance
1 Specific and essential part of
Broad term, Monitoring is one of
2 Carried out by any technician
or any automated machine.
Require professional analysis and
sofisticated judegement of data
leading to recommendation of
3 Formulated standard. Lacks formulated standards.
4 Differentiate between
acceptable and unacceptable
Doesn’t differentiate between
acceptable and unacceptable change.
Essential part of disease control
Originally applied to individual/ primarily to contacts of
serious communicable diseases(Pneumonic Plague)
Later includes diseases and related factors
More intensive form of data recording than monitoring and
has three distinct element (Christensen, 2001).
o Gathering, recording and analysis of data
o Dissemination of information to interested parties
o Action can be taken to control the disease
Rapid detection of disease outbreak
Early identification of disease problem
Assessment of health status of a defined population
Definition of priorities for a disease control and prevention
Identification of new and emerging disease
Evaluation of disease control programmes
Provision of information to plan and conduct research
Confirmation of options of a specific disease
Entire national herd- Testing of Bovine brucellosis
Few farms, Abattoirs, veterinary practices or laboratories
Ex- sentinel equine premises for vesicular stomatitis virus
and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
Stray dogs for canine parvo virus
Domestic animals for Human environmental health hazards,
carcinogens and insecticides
Identification of patterns of current and past infection using
Ex- Food and mouth disease in European union
Continuous monitoring of the existing disease status of the
population that are survived
Ex- reports of laboratory diagnosis, routine meat inspections
finding and statutory notification of disease
Essentially monitoring with the intention of acting on its
Uses data that may be biased, frequently lacking
denominator values and can’t give unbiased estimates of
Collect information commonly by undertaking surveys of
Based on well diagnosed surveys.
Can produce the unbiased estimate
Collect specific information about a defined disease so that
its level in a defined population can be measured and its
Focuses on population that are at increased risk of being
affected. Ex :- Targeting of fallen stock for surveillance of
Continuous watch over endemic diseases
Trigger a more detailed investigation to explore the
likelihood of a new disease occuring
Also kwon as syndromic surveillance
Inexpensive and faster than systems that requires laboratory
First kind of surveillance begun in developing country
Lack of specificity
For Epidemiological surveillance program priority should be given
Disease with higher case fatality rate
For which country has control measure
Seriousness and economic importance
Potencial for spread in the country or region or in the world
Well organized health and Epidemiological services
Adequately equipped and suitably staffed laboratory
A controlled agency to collect, annalyse and disseminate