T- 3 Project Management.ppt

PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
PROJECT
 A project is an organized programme of activities, carried together to
reach a definite goal, often of nonrecurring nature, with a specified
terminal point. It is a package of time bound, scheduled and
assembled activities, dedicated to the attainment of a specific goal of
successful completion of a work on time and within an allotted
budget.
 It is a combination of human and nonhuman resources pulled together
in a temporary organization to achieve a specified purpose.
 It is an appraisal for investment with the definite aim of producing a
flow of input over a specific period of time.
 A unique and nonrepetative activities aim at systematically
corresponding inputs in the direction of intended outputs.
PROJECT CHARACTRISTICS
1. It is a complex set of things.
2. It is a unique and no two projects are similar.
3. It has a life cycle.
4. It calls for a teamwork. (i.e. Co-ordination of different activities)
5. It is exposed to the risk and uncertainties.
6. It has a mission or set of objectives.
7. It has a beginning and an end.
8. Its process is flexible.
9. It is interrelated.
10. It involves varied analysis in its successful completion.
11. Each activity in the project is a crucial for its success.
OTHER FEATURES
1. Objectives
2. Lifespan
3. Single Entity
4. Team work
5. Life cycle
6. Uniqueness
7. Frequent Changes
8. Made to Order Principle
9. High level of Sub contracting
10. Risk and Uncertainty
PROJECT CLASSIFICATION
Investment
Tactical Strategic
1. Quantifiable and Nonquantifiable Projects
2. Replacement and Modernization Projects
3. Capacity Expansion Projects
4. Vertical Integration Projects
1. Backward Integration
2. Forward Integration
5. Concentric Diversification
1. Conglomerate Diversification
2. Research and Development Projects
3. Mandatory Investment Projects
4. Misc. Projects
PROJECT PHASES
1. IDENTIFICATION: It deals with the selection of the project after a
careful scanning of environment of investment opportunities and its
likely return.
2. FORMULATION: Translation of ideas into concrete project with the
scrutiny of its important primary aspects.
3. APPRAISAL: Searching scrutiny, analysis and evaluation of
mechanical, technical, financial and economic variables. Assessing
the profitability, ROI, and Break even points.
4. SELECTION: Rational choice of a project in the light of objective
inherent constraints.
5. IMPLEMENTATION: Expeditious actions should be carried out
within the allotted resources.
6. MANAGEMENT: Judicious operation of the project or an enterprise
with object like maximization of NPV, maximization in return, and
increase in the rate of return at the lower risk
PLANNING
CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS
ANALYSIS
SELECTION
REVIEW
FINANCING
IMPLEMENTATION
IMPLEMENTATION
PROJECT AND
ENGINEERING
DESIGN
Site probing and prospecting, preparation of blueprints
and plant design, plant engineering and selection of
specific machineries and equipments.
NEGOTIATIONS AND
CONTRACTING
Negotiating and drawing up of legal contracts with
respect to project financing, acquisition of technology,
construction of building and civil works, provision of
utilities, marketing arrangements
CONSTRUCTION Site preparation, construction of building and civil
works, erection and installation of machinery and
equipments
TRAINING Training to the engineers, technicians and workers
PLANT
COMMISSIONING
Start up of the plant (Technically crucial in the project
development stage)
LEVELS OF DECISION MAKING
SCOPE OPERATING
DECISIONS
ADMINISTRA
TIVE
DECISIONS
STRATEGIC
DECISIONS
WHERE IS THE
DECISION TAKEN?
Lower Level
Management
Middle Level
Management
Top Level
Management
HOW STRUCTURED
IS THE DECISION?
Routine Semi-structured Unstructured
WHAT IS THE LEVEL
OF RESOURCE
COMMITMENT
Minor Resource
Commitment
Moderate
Resource
Commitment
Major Resource
Commitment
WHAT IS THE TIME
HORIZONS?
Short term Medium Term Long Term
FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS
1. Market Analysis
2. Technical Analysis
3. Financial Analysis
4. Economic Analysis
5. Ecological Analysis
FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS
Contd…
1. MARKET ANALYSIS:
• What would be the aggregate demand of the proposed
product/service in the future?
• What would be the market share of the project under appraisal?
Related Information:
• Consumption trend in the past and the present consumption level
• Past and present supply positions
• Production possibilities and constraints
• Structure of Competition
• Cost Structure
• Consumer behavior, test and preferences, attitude
• Administrative, technical and legal Constraints
FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS
Contd…
2. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS:
• Whether the preliminary tests and studies have been done or
provided for?
• Whether the availability of raw material, power
and other inputs has been established?
• Whether the selected scale of operation is optimal?
• Whether the proposed layout of the site, building and plant
is sound?
• Whether the production process chosen is suitable?
• Whether the work schedule have been realistically drawn up?
FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS
Contd…
3. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS:
• Investment outlay and the cost of the project
• Means of the financing
• Cost of Capital
• Projected Profitability
• Break-even Point
• Cash flows of the project
• Projected Financial Position
• Level of Risk
FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS
Contd…
4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS:
• What are the direct economic benefits and the cost of the
projects measured in terms of market prices?
• What would be the impact of the project on the distribution of
income in the society?
• What would be the contribution of the project towards the
fulfillment of certain merit wants like self sufficiency,
employment and social order?
5. ECOLOGICALANALYSIS:
KEY ISSUES IN PROJECT ANALYSIS
MARKET ANALYSIS
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Potential Market
Market Share
Technical Viability
Sensible Choices
Risk
Return
Benefits and costs
Other Impacts
Environmental Damages
Restoration Measures
FEASIBILITY STUDY ANALYSIS
GENERATION OF IDEAS
CONDUCT FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
CONDUCT ECONOMIC &
ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
IS THE PROJECT WORTHWILE?
PREPARE FUNDING PROPOSAL TERMINATE
CONDUCT MARKET
ANALYSIS
CONDUCT TECHNICAL
ANALYSIS
IDEA SCREENING
IS THE IDEA PRIMA FACIE PROMISING
PLAN FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
TERMINATE
E
V
L
T
I
O
N
P
R
I
M
I
N
A
R
Y
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S
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T- 3 Project Management.ppt

  • 2. PROJECT  A project is an organized programme of activities, carried together to reach a definite goal, often of nonrecurring nature, with a specified terminal point. It is a package of time bound, scheduled and assembled activities, dedicated to the attainment of a specific goal of successful completion of a work on time and within an allotted budget.  It is a combination of human and nonhuman resources pulled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specified purpose.  It is an appraisal for investment with the definite aim of producing a flow of input over a specific period of time.  A unique and nonrepetative activities aim at systematically corresponding inputs in the direction of intended outputs.
  • 3. PROJECT CHARACTRISTICS 1. It is a complex set of things. 2. It is a unique and no two projects are similar. 3. It has a life cycle. 4. It calls for a teamwork. (i.e. Co-ordination of different activities) 5. It is exposed to the risk and uncertainties. 6. It has a mission or set of objectives. 7. It has a beginning and an end. 8. Its process is flexible. 9. It is interrelated. 10. It involves varied analysis in its successful completion. 11. Each activity in the project is a crucial for its success.
  • 4. OTHER FEATURES 1. Objectives 2. Lifespan 3. Single Entity 4. Team work 5. Life cycle 6. Uniqueness 7. Frequent Changes 8. Made to Order Principle 9. High level of Sub contracting 10. Risk and Uncertainty
  • 5. PROJECT CLASSIFICATION Investment Tactical Strategic 1. Quantifiable and Nonquantifiable Projects 2. Replacement and Modernization Projects 3. Capacity Expansion Projects 4. Vertical Integration Projects 1. Backward Integration 2. Forward Integration 5. Concentric Diversification 1. Conglomerate Diversification 2. Research and Development Projects 3. Mandatory Investment Projects 4. Misc. Projects
  • 6. PROJECT PHASES 1. IDENTIFICATION: It deals with the selection of the project after a careful scanning of environment of investment opportunities and its likely return. 2. FORMULATION: Translation of ideas into concrete project with the scrutiny of its important primary aspects. 3. APPRAISAL: Searching scrutiny, analysis and evaluation of mechanical, technical, financial and economic variables. Assessing the profitability, ROI, and Break even points. 4. SELECTION: Rational choice of a project in the light of objective inherent constraints. 5. IMPLEMENTATION: Expeditious actions should be carried out within the allotted resources. 6. MANAGEMENT: Judicious operation of the project or an enterprise with object like maximization of NPV, maximization in return, and increase in the rate of return at the lower risk
  • 8. IMPLEMENTATION PROJECT AND ENGINEERING DESIGN Site probing and prospecting, preparation of blueprints and plant design, plant engineering and selection of specific machineries and equipments. NEGOTIATIONS AND CONTRACTING Negotiating and drawing up of legal contracts with respect to project financing, acquisition of technology, construction of building and civil works, provision of utilities, marketing arrangements CONSTRUCTION Site preparation, construction of building and civil works, erection and installation of machinery and equipments TRAINING Training to the engineers, technicians and workers PLANT COMMISSIONING Start up of the plant (Technically crucial in the project development stage)
  • 9. LEVELS OF DECISION MAKING SCOPE OPERATING DECISIONS ADMINISTRA TIVE DECISIONS STRATEGIC DECISIONS WHERE IS THE DECISION TAKEN? Lower Level Management Middle Level Management Top Level Management HOW STRUCTURED IS THE DECISION? Routine Semi-structured Unstructured WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF RESOURCE COMMITMENT Minor Resource Commitment Moderate Resource Commitment Major Resource Commitment WHAT IS THE TIME HORIZONS? Short term Medium Term Long Term
  • 10. FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS 1. Market Analysis 2. Technical Analysis 3. Financial Analysis 4. Economic Analysis 5. Ecological Analysis
  • 11. FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS Contd… 1. MARKET ANALYSIS: • What would be the aggregate demand of the proposed product/service in the future? • What would be the market share of the project under appraisal? Related Information: • Consumption trend in the past and the present consumption level • Past and present supply positions • Production possibilities and constraints • Structure of Competition • Cost Structure • Consumer behavior, test and preferences, attitude • Administrative, technical and legal Constraints
  • 12. FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS Contd… 2. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS: • Whether the preliminary tests and studies have been done or provided for? • Whether the availability of raw material, power and other inputs has been established? • Whether the selected scale of operation is optimal? • Whether the proposed layout of the site, building and plant is sound? • Whether the production process chosen is suitable? • Whether the work schedule have been realistically drawn up?
  • 13. FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS Contd… 3. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS: • Investment outlay and the cost of the project • Means of the financing • Cost of Capital • Projected Profitability • Break-even Point • Cash flows of the project • Projected Financial Position • Level of Risk
  • 14. FACETS OF PROJECT ANALYSIS Contd… 4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS: • What are the direct economic benefits and the cost of the projects measured in terms of market prices? • What would be the impact of the project on the distribution of income in the society? • What would be the contribution of the project towards the fulfillment of certain merit wants like self sufficiency, employment and social order? 5. ECOLOGICALANALYSIS:
  • 15. KEY ISSUES IN PROJECT ANALYSIS MARKET ANALYSIS TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FINANCIAL ANALYSIS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Potential Market Market Share Technical Viability Sensible Choices Risk Return Benefits and costs Other Impacts Environmental Damages Restoration Measures
  • 16. FEASIBILITY STUDY ANALYSIS GENERATION OF IDEAS CONDUCT FINANCIAL ANALYSIS CONDUCT ECONOMIC & ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IS THE PROJECT WORTHWILE? PREPARE FUNDING PROPOSAL TERMINATE CONDUCT MARKET ANALYSIS CONDUCT TECHNICAL ANALYSIS IDEA SCREENING IS THE IDEA PRIMA FACIE PROMISING PLAN FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS TERMINATE E V L T I O N P R I M I N A R Y A N A L Y S I S