• Efficient transfer of resources from those having idle resources to others
who have a pressing need for them is achieved through financial markets.
• Stated formally, financial markets provide channels for allocation of
savings to investment.
• The financial markets have two major components:
• Money market
• Capital market.
The Money market refers to the market where borrowers and
lenders exchange short-term funds to solve their liquidity
Money market instruments are generally financial claims that
have low default risk, maturities under one year and high
INTRUMENTS TRADED IN MONEY MARKET
• TREASURY BILLS
• CALL/NOTICE MONEY
• COMMERCIAL PAPER
• CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSITS
• COMMERCIAL BILLS
• A treasury bill is a particular type of finance bill or a promissory note put out
by the government of the country.
• Although state governments also issued treasury bills on occasions until 1950,
since then it is only the central government that has been selling them.
• Treasury Bills are highly liquid because there cannot be a better guarantee of
repayment than the one given by the government.
Important Qualities of Treasury Bills
a) The high liquidity
b) Absence of risk of default
c) Ready availability on tap
d) Assured yield
e) Low transactions cost
f) Eligibility of inclusion in Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
g) Negligible capital depreciation
CALL MONEY MARKET
• Call Money Market is that part of the national money market where the
day-to-day surplus funds, mostly of banks are traded in.
• The loans made in this market are of a short-term nature, their maturity
varying between one day to a fortnight.
• The nature of this market in different countries varies from each other.
Differences in institutional structures account for the differences in the
nature, participants, purposes or types of transactions in such markets.
• All, however, have one common feature: they deal in loans which have a
very short maturity and are highly liquid.
• A Commercial Paper is quite a new instrument in the money market in India and
even in the advanced industrial nations, except in the U.S. where it has been in
vogue since the early 19th century.
• However, in all other countries, it is only a post-1980 phenomenon.
• CPs are short-term promissory notes with fixed maturity issued mostly by
the leading, nationally reputed, credit-worthy, and highly rated large
• Any person, bank, company, incorporated and unincorporated bodies, and NRIs
can invest in CPs.
• Interest rates on CPs are market-determined. The cost of CP finance is lower
than or comparable to that of bank credit.
CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSITS
• Certificate of Deposits (CDs) are marketable receipts in bearer or registered
form of funds deposited in banks for a specified period at a specified rate of
• They are transferable, negotiable, short-term, fixed-interest bearing, maturity
dated, highly liquid and riskless money market instruments.
• Banks issue CDs to compete with other financial intermediaries and to counter
the process of securitization.
• CDs can be issued to individuals, corporations, companies, trust, funds,
associations and NRIs.
• The maturity period of CDs varies between three months to one year.
• The rate of interest on CDs is also market-determined and it is more attractive
than that on bank deposits.
• According to the Indian Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, it is a written
instrument containing an unconditional order, signed by the maker,
directing a certain person to pay a credit sum of money only to, or to the
order of, a certain person, or to the bearer of the instrument.
• A commercial bill or bill of exchange is a short-term, negotiable, and self-
liquidating money market instrument.
• It is an asset with a high degree of liquidity and a low degree of risk.
Market where long term funds are borrowed and lent, the primary
purpose being directing the flow of savings into long-term investments.
Capital Markets deal in long-term claims (maturity period above 1 year).
• Preference shares allow an investor to own a stake at the issuing company with
a condition that whenever the company decides to pay dividends, the holders of
the preference shares will be the first to be paid.
• Dividend payment of the preference shareholders is fixed and if somehow
company liquefies, the owners of the preference shares will be the first one to
get their money back after the company has paid back its debt.
• Thus, preference shares are those shares which full-fill both the following two
(i) They carry preferential share right in respect of dividend at a fixed rate,
(ii) They also carry preferential right in regard to payment of capital on winding
up of the company.
TYPES OF PREFERENCE SHARES
a) Cumulative and Non-cumulative
b) Convertible and Non-convertible
c) Redeemable and Non-redeemable
d) Participating and Non-participating
TYPES OF PREFERENCE SHARES
a) On cumulative preference shares, if in any year the profits are insufficient to
pay the preference dividend then this dividend can be paid in the subsequent
year before any other dividend is paid. In other words the right to receive the
dividend goes on accumulating till it is paid. In case of Non – cumulative
preference shares the dividend can be paid only in that year. If there are
insufficient profits then such preference shareholders do not get any dividend
for that year.
b) Convertible preference shares can be converted into ordinary shares on
terms and conditions fixed at the time of issue of such shares.
c) A redeemable preference share matures in a fixed period of time and for all
practical purposes it is regarded as a debt security like a debenture.
TYPES OF PREFERENCE SHARES
d) Participating preference shareholders can earn a higher dividend than the
fixed one if the company makes good profits. Participating preference shares
are entitled to participate in the surplus profits remaining after the payment of:
(a) Fixed dividend to preference shareholders, and
(b) Dividend to the equity shareholders.
They are also entitled to participate in the surplus funds remaining at the time
of winding of the company after payment of (a) Preference share capital & (b)
Equity Share Capital.
Non – participating preference share are not entitled to participate in the
surplus profits or surplus funds left over at the time of winding off.
• According to Section 85 of The Companies Act, 1956, an Equity Share is a share
which is not a preference share. In other words, shares which do not enjoy any
preferential right in the payment of dividend or repayment of capital, are termed as
• The equity shareholders are entitled to share the distributable profits of the
company after satisfying the dividend rights of the preference shareholders.
• The dividend on equity shares is not fixed and it may vary from year to year
depending upon the amount of profits available for distribution.
• The equity share capital may be (i) with voting rights; or (ii) with differential rights
as to voting, dividend or otherwise in accordance with such rules and subject to
such conditions as may be prescribed.
I. Preference shareholders are
paid dividend before the equity
II. Rate of dividend is fixed.
III. Preference share may be
converted to equity shares, if
the terms of issue provide so.
I. Equity shareholders are paid
dividend out of the balance of
profit available after the
dividend paid to preference
II. Rate of dividend is decided by
Board of Directors, year to year
depending on profits.
III. Equity shares are not
Right of Dividend
Rate of Dividend
BASIS OF DIFFERENCE
IV. Preference shareholders do not
have the right to participate in
the management of the
V. Preference shareholders do not
carry the voting right. They can
only vote in special
VI. At the time of winding up of the
company, preference share
capital is paid before the
payment of equity share capital.
IV. Equity shareholders have the right
to participate in the management
of the company.
V. Equity shareholders have voting
rights in all circumstances.
VI. On winding up, equity share
capital is paid after preference
share capital is paid.
BASIS OF DIFFERENCE
• The word ‘debenture’ has been derived from a Latin word ‘debere’ which
means to borrow.
• Debenture is a written instrument acknowledging a debt under the common seal
of the company.
• It contains a contract for repayment of principal after a specified period or at
intervals or at the option of the company and for payment of interest at a fixed
rate payable usually either half-yearly or yearly on fixed dates.
• According, to Section 2(12) of The Companies Act,1956 ‘Debenture’ includes
Debenture Inventory, Bonds and any other securities of a company whether
constituting a charge on the assets of the company or not.
TYPES OF DEBENTURES
• Convertible Debentures: Debentures which are convertible into equity shares or
in any other security either at the option of the company or the debenture holders
are called convertible debentures. These debentures are either fully convertible or
• Non-Convertible Debentures: The debentures which cannot be converted into
shares or in any other securities are called nonconvertible debentures. Most
debentures issued by companies fell in this category.
On the basis of CONVERTIBILITY
TYPES OF DEBENTURES
• Redeemable Debentures: Redeemable debentures are those which are payable
on the expiry of the specific period either in lump sum or in Instalments during
the life time of the company. Debentures can be redeemed either at par or at
• Irredeemable Debentures: Irredeemable debentures are also known as
Perpetual Debentures because the company does not given any undertaking for
the repayment of money borrowed by issuing such debentures. These debentures
are repayable on the on winding-up of a company or on the expiry of a long
On the basis of TENURE
A debt investment in which an investor loans money to an entity
(corporate or governmental) that borrows the funds for a defined period of
time at a fixed interest rate.
Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states and federal
governments to finance a variety of projects and activities.
• Corporate bonds are debt securities issued by private and public
• Companies issue corporate bonds to raise money for a variety of purposes, such
as building a new plant, purchasing equipment, or growing the business.
• When one buys a corporate bond, one lends money to the "issuer," the company
that issued the bond.
• In exchange, the company promises to return the money, also known as
"principal," on a specified maturity date. Until that date, the company usually
pays you a stated rate of interest, generally semi-annually.
• Municipal Bond is a bond issued by a state, U.S. territory, city, local
government, or their agencies.
• Interest income received by holders of municipal bonds is often exempt from
the federal income tax and from the income tax of the state in which they are
issued, although municipal bonds issued for certain purposes may not be tax
• This concept is new in India.
• The first municipal bonds in India were issued in 1995, while the first state-
guaranteed bonds were launched by the Bangalore Municipal Corporation
(Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike) in 1997.
• In 2010, the Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation issued bonds worth
Rs. 30 lakhs.
• In November 2013, the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry had
written to the Reserve Bank of India to allow municipal bonds to be traded.
• In December, SEBI had set up a 20-member committee to develop a market for
• Experts say India’s municipal bond market faces various hurdles, including low
ratings, reluctant investors and unclear regulation.
• Municipalities in metros and other large cities are reluctant to turn to the debt
market, as these are flush with cash.
• Municipalities in tier-III and tier–IV cities, which need capital, don’t have access
to bond markets and rely on Housing and Urban Development Corporation for
ZERO COUPON BOND
• Zero coupon bonds are bonds with no coupon payments.
• Like Treasury Bills, they are issued at a discount to the face value.
• The Government of India issued such securities in the nineties, it has not
issued zero coupon bond after that.
• Examples of Zero-Coupon bond includes U.S. Treasury Bills, U.S. Savings